In 1948 the Korea Peninsula was divided in between a Soviet-backed federal government in the north and also an American-backed government in the south. War broke out along the 38th parallel on June 25, 1950. On that day, North Oriental troops coordinated an assault at numerous strategic points along the parallel and also headed southern toward Seoul. The United Nations Security Council responded to the attack by adopting a resolution that condemned the invasion as a "breach of the peace."Read More...
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Paratroopers Flying to the Dropzone in Korea, 3/1951
In the task Containment in Korea: Entering the Korean War, students analyze President Truman"spush release of June 27, 1950, announcing that he was committing American pressures to a linked United Nations armed forces effort in Korea at the beginning of the Oriental War. Students reflect on the language offered in Truman"s statement to the American human being, compare it through Soviet views of events in Korea, and also recognize exactly how Truman"s words reflect the US policy of containment in the time of the Cold War.
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More Background Information
While the end of World War II lugged tranquility and also prosperity to many Americans, it also produced a heightened state of stress in between the Soviet Union and the USA. Fearing that the Soviet Union intended to "export" communism to other countries, America focused its international policy on the "containment" of communism, both at home and abroad. Although formulation of the Trumale Doctrine, Marshall Plan, and the Berlin Airlift said that the USA had actually a specific problem via the spcheck out of communism in Europe, America"s policy of containment extfinished to Asia as well. Certainly, Asia verified to be the website of the initially significant battle waged in the name of containment: the Oriental War.
The department of Korea right into 2 halves had actually come at the end of World War II. The USA and also the Soviet Union agreed to temporarily divide Korea and also overcheck out the removal of Japanese forces. In August of 1945, the Soviet Union lived in Korea, which had been under Japan"s control because 1910. The United States conveniently relocated its own troops into southern Korea. Japanese troops surrendered to the Russians in the north and also to the Americans in the southern.
The U.S.-Soviet agreement temporarily separated Korea along the 38th parallel, a latitudinal line that bisected the country; this avoided a permanent decision about Korea"s future. This line became even more rigid after 1946, however, when Kim Il Sung organized a communist government in the north –the Democratic People"s Republic. Shortly after, nationalist exile Syngmale Rhee went back to Korea and put up a rival federal government in the southern –the Republic of Korea (ROK). Each federal government hoped to reunify the nation under its very own rule.
On June 25, 1950, North Korean troops coordinated an assault at several strategic points alengthy the 38th parallel and also headed southern towards Seoul. The United Nations Security Council voted 9-0 to adopt a resolution condemning the invasion as a "breach of the peace." The Security Council did not have a Soviet delegate, because six months prior, the Soviet Union had actually left to protest the United Nation"s refusal to seat a delegate from China.
President Harry S. Truguy quickly committed Amerihave the right to forces to a linked United Nations armed forces initiative and also called Gen. Douglas MacArthur Commander of the U.N. forces. Fifteenager other countries also sent troops under the U.N. command also. Truman did not look for a formal declaration of war from Congress; officially, America"s presence in Korea ainstalled to no more than a "police action."
However, the enattempt of the USA into the dispute signaled a reversal of policy toward Korea. Although it backed the federal government of Syngmale Rhee, the United States had actually begun withillustration its troops from South Korea in 1948. As late as January of 1950, Secretary of State Dean Acheson had implied that the Korea Peninsula lay exterior the all-crucial "defense perimeter" of the United States, a statement that some took to intend that the USA would certainly not defend the ROK from communist strike.
The decision to intervene in Korea, yet, prospered out of the tense atmosphere that identified Cold War politics. On the eve of the North Korean invasion, a number of events had actually made Truman anxious. The Soviet Union exploded an atomic bomb in 1949, finishing the United States" monopoly on the weapon. In Europe, Soviet treatment in Greece and also Turcrucial had given increase to the Truman Doctrine and also the Marshall Plan, which funneled aid to war-torn Europe in the really hopes of warding off communist political victories. In at an early stage 1950, President Trumale directed the National Security Council (NSC) to conduct an analysis of Soviet and also Amerideserve to army capabilities. In its report, well-known as "NSC 68," the Council recommended heavy rises in armed forces funding to assist contain the Soviets.
Events in Asia also contributed to an increased feeling of inprotection. In 1949 China underwent a change that brought Mao Zedong and also his Communist party right into power. The nationalists, led by Chiang Kai-Shek, had actually retreated to the island also of Formosa (Taiwan) while they ongoing their battle via mainland China. Mao conveniently relocated to ally himself via the Soviet Union, and also signed a treaty with the Soviets in 1950. The Truman administration confronted criticism from Republicans that declared he had actually "lost" China. They criticized him for not offering sufficient assist to the Chinese nationalists. The pointer by Secretary of State Dean Acheson that the administration identify the communist federal government of China only provided them more ammunition for their strikes.
The Truman management also faced internal criticism about its commitment to anti-communism at house. Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin had actually recently begun his inrenowned hunt for communists within the U.S. Government. Although McCarthy was just getting started, the recent trials of Alger Hiss and also others for espionage left the Trumale administration apprehensive around its anti-communist credentials. Truguy and also his advisors found themselves under increased residential push not to appear "soft" on communism awide.
Therefore, when North Oriental troops got into the South, the Trumale management seized upon the possibility to safeguard a non-communist government from intrusion by communist troops. Determined not to "lose" another country to communism, and interested in shoring up its anticommunist credentials, the Trumale administration discovered itself deffinishing a country a people away from U.S. soil. Yet Truman"s response was not simply a solution to inner pressure. The intrusion of South Korea made Truman genuinely fearful that the Soviet Union and also China intended to expand the sphere of communism throughout Asia.
President Truman released a statement on June 27, 1950, showing his worry via communist aggression and development. He suggested that "communism has actually passed beyond the usage of subvariation to conquer independent countries and will now usage armed invasion and war." Truman"s statement says that he believed the attack by North Korea had been part of a bigger setup by communist China and also, by extension, the Soviet Union. The President thought that the Oriental instance was equivalent to that of Greece in 1947. He indeveloped his advisors that he thought the intrusion was "exceptionally obviously motivated by the Soviet Union." This provided America a ethical imperative to act. "If we do not put up a fight currently," Truguy oboffered to his staff, there was "no telling what they"ll do."
His problem over the future of anti-communist federal governments in Asia showed in his public statement. Trumale pledged to defend Formosa (Taiwan) from strike and to support French pressures in Indochina, a problem that would certainly inevitably escalate into the Vietnam War. Yet Truguy had no wish to provoke a full-scale battle through the Soviets. By blaming "communism" in the statement, as opposed to the Soviet Union, Dean Achekid later on defined, the administration sshould provide the Soviets a "graceful exit" and also not provoke open confrontation through Russia.
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Truman"s statement additionally reflected a new army order. Although the USA took the lead in the Korean action, it did so under the rubric of the United Nations. Truguy made it clear that his actions fell within the actions recommended by the United Nations, and reminded "all members of the United Nations" to "consider very closely the after-effects of this latest aggression in Korea" and also that America "will proceed to uporganize the dominion of legislation."
Truman"s statement was released to newspaper reporters. That afternoon, Trumale attended a meeting of the United Nations and proposed a resolution urging all UN member countries to provide assistance to South Korea. The meeting had actually been originally planned for the morning however was postponed to accommoday one of its members. Secretary of State Dean Achechild later on reflected that the Soviets liked to point out that given that the U.N. meeting emerged after the President"s statement, Truguy can not truthcompletely insurance claim that his decision to commit pressures was affected by the wishes of the United Nations. When it did satisfy later that day, the United Nations passed his resolution, although a handful of dissenting countries abstained.