A person PERSPECTIVE top top September 28, 2000, riots damaged out in the city that Jerusalem. The reason was a visit by one Israeli political leader come a Jewish holy place at a ar on the holy place Mount. Muslims additionally have a divine place on the temple Mount. They perceived the visit through the Israeli leader together disrespectful come Muslims. Hundreds of human being died in the polite unrest the followed.

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To recognize why a straightforward visit to a divine place would cause such problems, the is necessary to understand the deep-seated hostility Arabs and Jews feel for every other. They have an huge disagreement end the regulate of the city of Jerusalem and also of the land referred to as the occupied Territories. In fact, the relations in between Arabs and also Jews affect the entire an ar of the east Mediterranean.

Religious divine Places

Three significant monotheistic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and also Islam—were started in Southwest Asia. All three case Jerusalem together a divine city. The City that Jerusalem, i beg your pardon covers 42 square miles, has Jewish, Christian, Armenian Christian, and also Muslim sections. Pendant of all three religions concerned the Old City to visit areas with strong spiritual meaning.

JEWISH PRESENCE

For Jews, Jerusalem, the capital of Israel, is the center of their modern-day and ancient homeland. Situated in the old component of the city, the holy place Mount as soon as housed the religion's earliest temples.

There, King Solomon developed the an initial Temple. The second Temple was constructed after the Jews went back to their countryside in 538 B.C. Modern-day Jews come to pray in ~ the holiest site in Jerusalem, a section of the second Temple recognized as the west Wall—also called the Wailing Wall. It is the only remaining item of the 2nd Temple, i beg your pardon was damaged in A.D. 70 by the Romans.

CHRISTIAN HERITAGE

For Christians, Jerusalem is the sacred place of the final suffering and also crucifixion that Jesus. Towns and villages vital in the life the Jesus are uncovered near Jerusalem. Every year, believer visit places like the mountain of Olives and also the Church the the divine Sepulchre by the thousands. As soon as Jerusalem to be under Muslim control, Christians launched the campaigns to restore the lands and also place lock under the control of Christians. Eventually, the lands returned to the manage of Muslims and remained that means until the nation of Israel was developed in may of 1948.

ISLAMIC sacred SITES

After Mecca and also Medina, Jerusalem is taken into consideration the third most holy city come Muslims. A shrine there, dubbed Dome the the Rock, residences the spot where Muslims believe the Prophet Muhammad rose into heaven. Jews believe it is the website where Abraham, a Jewish forefather, prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac to God. The Dome the the Rock and also a nearby mosque, Al-Aqsa, are situated on the temple Mount beside the western Wall. Since these most divine sites space so close together, they have been the site of clashes in between Jews and Muslims.


A history of Unrest

The nations of the east Mediterranean have actually been plagued through a history of politics tension and unrest. The footrest Empire, a Muslim federal government based in Turkey, rule the eastern Mediterranean lands indigenous 1520 to 1922. Yet the Ottoman realm grew weaker and also less able come solve troubles with teams seeking independence. By the beginning of the 20th century, its collapse to be not far away. The Ottoman empire sided with Germany during human being War I. At the end of the war, the Ottoman realm fell apart. Britain and also France got the soil in the east Mediterranean as part of the battle settlement.

THE legacy OF COLONIALISM

After world War I, Britain and also France divided the footrest lands in the east Mediterranean region. France took the northern portion, consisting of the present-day nations of Lebanon and also Syria. Britain controlled the southern section, which contained the present-day countries of Jordan and Israel. Britain and also France were claimed to dominion these lands till they were ready for independence.

During the time of their control, the French generally played different spiritual groups versus each other. Those tensions remain in the region today. The Syrians hated the French and also in the 1920s and 1930s rebelled versus them. Lebanon became independent in 1943, and also Syria got independence in 1946.

BRITISH control PALESTINE

The land controlled by britain was recognized as Palestine. In the 19th century, a movement called Zionism began. That is goal was to create and also support a Jewish landscape in Palestine. Jewish inhabitants started buying land and settling there. Through 1914, just prior to World war I, about 12 percent the the population in Palestine was Jewish. After ~ the war, the British took command of the an ar and ongoing to allow Jewish immigrant to Palestine. Early on, Arabs and Jews in the an ar cooperated. However as an ext and an ext Jews poured right into Palestine to escape persecution in Germany, the Arabs resisted the establishment of a Jewish state. In 1939, to minimize tensions the British halted Jewish immigrant to Palestine.

As you research the map top top this page, you will watch that the area managed by the brother was separated into 2 sections—Transjordan and Palestine. The floor was separated to relieve tensions in between Arabs and Jews. One Arab government jointly rule Transjordan v the British. Britain regulated Palestine, in addition to local federal governments that contained both Jews and also Arabs.


CREATING THE STATE that ISRAEL

At the end of human being War II, hundreds of Jewish survivors that the Holocaust want to resolve in Palestine. Palestine was taken into consideration the Jewish homeland. Human being opinion sustained the establishment of a Jewish nation-state. Britain ultimately referred the inquiry of a Jewish homeland to the joined Nations. In 1947, the joined Nations arisen a plan to divide Palestine into two states—one because that Arabs and also one because that Jews.

Arabs in the region did no agree through the division. However, the country of Israel was created on may 14, 1948. Immediately, the surrounding Arab nations of Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and also Yemen invaded Israel to protect against the facility of the state. Jewish troops combated back. By the 1950s, Israel was a firmly developed nation. The 1948 battle was the beginning of hostilities that proceed to this day.

Caught in the middle of this turmoil were Palestinian Arabs and also Christians. Plenty of of these world had root in Palestine the went earlier for centuries. They one of two people fled their dwellings or were forced into UN-sponsored refugee camps just external Israel's borders. The floor designated for the Palestinians ~ above the West Bank and also Gaza piece is under Israeli control. In the 1960s, the Palestine Liberation organization (PLO) was formed to regain the land for Palestinian Arabs. End the years, the PLO has actually pursued political and also military way to take possession the Arab floor in Israel and permit refugees to return to their homes.

Modernizing Economies

The countries in the eastern Mediterranean subregion are fairly young. Most came to be independent soon after people War II. Cyprus obtained its independence from brothers in 1960. These nations confront many financial problems. Political divisions, refugees, absence of water, and a weak framework make it complicated to develop healthy economies.

REFUGEES and also CIVIL WARS

The creation of Israel created a huge number the Palestinian refugees. Today, those refugees and their descendants total nearly 3.6 million people. They room scattered across many the the countries in the region. Some still live in UN-sponsored camps.


Many the the refugees have struggled to find adequate food and shelter. Many of them space unemployed. Providing education and other solutions for them is complicated for countries such together Jordan, one of the poorest in the region—and the one with the largest Palestinian refugees population.

Civil battles in Lebanon and also Cyprus have likewise caused substantial economic problems. Lebanon, a more developed nation, was hard hit through a civil war that lasted indigenous 1975 come 1976. The conflict widened to incorporate other nations, and also in 1982 Israel attacked Lebanon. Part Israeli troops remained in Lebanon until 2000.

MODERN INFRASTRUCTURE

All of the nations of the east Mediterranean subregion have great potential because that development. They have a an excellent climate for producing citrus crops and also many places for tourist to visit. They are well situated for connections to international industries in Europe, Asia, and Africa.

What many of them lack, however, is an infrastructure that would assistance a growing economy. Roadways in wartorn areas, for example, should be rebuilt. Particularly needed are irrigation systems to do the area bloom. Better communication systems and power resources are required for arising high tech industries in the region. Israel has actually been able to build innovative industries such as computer software development.

Modern Life

Modern life in the east Mediterranean is a curious mix of old and new. Strong social traditions exist however they are linked with changes that to be brought about by modern innovations. Cabinet phones, computers, and Internet accessibility are increasingly common. One aspect of life here that remains fairly traditional, however, is the dining experience.

EATING OUT, eat IN

Eating in restaurants in eastern Mediterranean nations is no as typical as in the united States. Some restaurants have actually separate sections because that men and also women. Cafes serving coffee and tea are typically for guys only. Many meals are eaten in the home. Families and also sometimes friends conference to have actually meals. The last meal of the job is usually served between 8 and 11 P.M.

Typically, a meal begins with small portions the hummus, ground chickpeas combined with lemon juice and also parsley, and baba ganouzh, an aubergine dip offered with pita, a flat bread through a pocket. A salad called tabbouleh, make of bulgur (cracked wheat), parsley, onions, mint, tomatoes, and lemon juice, is common. Chicken or lamb is an ext likely come be served as a main course 보다 beef. Countless meals are finished through fresh fruit or sweets such together kolaicha, a sweet cake make of barley flour, sugar, oil, and also cardamom seed. Thick coffee or tea is additionally served. The host of a dinner may not eat through the guests so that he can resolve all your needs during the meal.


A range OF CULTURES

Muslim Arabs make up the majority of human being who live in the countries of the eastern Mediterranean. However, in several nations, particularly Lebanon and also Israel, there is a variety of cultures.

Since the seventh century, Lebanon has actually been a refuge because that both Muslims and Christians.

Many the the Muslims there room Shi'ites, as contrasted to the Sunni majorities in countless of the other nations in this region. A little group that Druze also live in Lebanon. This strictly knit team is really secretive around its religious practices. The members live in the mountainous areas of Lebanon and also in Israel and Syria. Believer of the Maronite heritage (Roman Catholics adhering to Eastern Orthodox practices) and the east Orthodox tradition comprise a huge minority in Lebanon.

Together, this groups existing a wide selection of cultures and spiritual practices. The selection makes it complicated to develop unity in the country. Israel is a land with a tremendous variety of immigrants. The bulk of immigrants are Jewish, and they arrive from anywhere the globe. Lock come indigenous the unified States, eastern Europe, the Mediterranean region, Russia, and Ethiopia. The emphasis of Jewish culture helps to attract most of this varied group together.

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In addition, Israel is house to Arab Muslims that several different groups. Bedouins live in the Negev Desert. Druze, Sunni, and a group called Circassians come indigenous the Caucasus hills area. Likewise living in Israel is a small number of Christians and people complying with the Baha'i faith. The mix of all these teams brings a variety of languages and also lifestyles to Israel.