Key Points

The structure of the roman Republic to be a collection of guidelines and principles pass down, greatly through precedent. The structure was mostly unwritten and also uncodified, and evolved over time.Roman citizenship to be avital prerequisite to possessing many important legitimate rights.The Senate pass decrees the were referred to as senatus consulta, ostensibly “advice” native the senate come a magistrate. The emphasis of the roman inn Senate to be usually international policy.There to be two species of legislative branch assemblies. The an initial was the comitia (“committees”), which to be assemblies the all roman citizens. The 2nd was the concilia (“councils”), which to be assemblies of particular groups that citizens.The comitia centuriata was the assembly that the centuries (soldiers), and they elected magistrates who had imperium powers (consuls and praetors). The comitia tributa, or assembly that the people (the citizens of Rome), to be presided over by a consul and composed of 35 tribes. They elected quaestors, curule aediles, and military tribunes.Dictators were sometimes elected throughout times of military emergency, during which the constitutional federal government would be disbanded.

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Terms

patricians

A group of ruling course families in old Rome.

plebeian

A basic body of free Roman citizens that were component of the reduced strata the society.

Roman Senate

A political college in the old Roman Republic. It was not an elected body, yet one who members were appointed by the consuls, and also later by the censors.


The structure of the roman inn Republic was a collection of guidelines and also principles passed down, mainly through precedent. The structure was mostly unwritten and uncodified, and evolved end time. Fairly than creating a federal government that was primarily a democracy (as was ancient Athens), one aristocracy (as was ancient Sparta), or a monarchy (as to be Rome before, and also in plenty of respects after, the Republic), the roman constitution combined these three elements of governance into their in its entirety political system. The democratic aspect took the type of legislative assemblies; the aristocratic facet took the form of the Senate; and also the monarchical element took the form of the many term-limited consuls.


The roman SPQR Banner. “SPQR” (senatus populusque romanus) was the roman motto, i m sorry stood for “the Senate and also people the Rome.”


The roman Senate

The Senate’s can be fried authority derived from the esteem and also prestige that the senators, and also was based on both precedent and custom. The Senate pass decrees, i m sorry were dubbed senatus consulta, ostensibly “advice” handed under from the senate to a magistrate. In practice, the magistrates usually complied with the senatus consulta. The focus of the roman Senate to be usually foreign policy. However, the power of the Senate expanded over time together the strength of the legislative assemblies declined, and eventually the Senate take it a greater role in civil law-making. Senators were typically appointed by roman inn censors, yet during time of military emergency, such together the civil wars of the first century BCE, this practice became less prevalent, and also the roman inn dictator, triumvir, or the Senate chin would pick its members.


Curia Iulia—the roman Senate House. The Curia Julia in the roman inn Forum, the chair of the royal Senate.


Legislative Assemblies

Roman citizenship to be a vital prerequisite to possessing many important legitimate rights, such together the civil liberties to trial and also appeal, marriage, suffrage, to host office, to enter binding contracts, and to enjoy special tax exemptions. An adult male citizen with full legal and political civil liberties was referred to as optimo jure. The optimo jure elected assemblies, and also the assemblies chosen magistrates, spreading legislation, presided end trials in capital cases, asserted war and also peace, and also forged or liquified treaties. There to be two types of legislative assemblies. The an initial was the comitia (“committees”), which to be assemblies of all optimo jure. The 2nd was the concilia (“councils”), which were assemblies of particular groups of optimo jure.

Citizens on this assemblies to be organized further on the basis of curiae (familial groupings), century (for military purposes), and tribes (for civil purposes), and each would each gather right into their very own assemblies. The Curiate Assembly served just a symbolic function in the late Republic, though the assembly was used to ratify the strength of newly elected magistrates by pass laws well-known as leges curiatae. The comitia centuriata to be the assembly the the century (soldiers). The president of the comitia centuriata was generally a consul, and the comitia centuriata would elect magistrates who had imperium powers (consuls and praetors). It additionally elected censors. Just the comitia centuriata could declare war and also ratify the results of a census. It likewise served as the highest possible court of appeal in particular judicial cases.

The assembly the the tribes, the comitia tributa, was presided end by a consul, and was written of 35 tribes. The tribes were no ethnic or kinship groups, but rather geographical subdivisions. While the did no pass many laws, the comitia tributa did elect quaestors, curule aediles, and also military tribunes. The Plebeian the supervisory board was similar to the assembly the the tribes, but excluded the patricians. They chosen their own officers, plebeian tribunes, and plebeian aediles. Generally a plebeian tribune would certainly preside end the assembly. This assembly passed many laws, and also could additionally act as a court the appeal.

Since the tribunes were thought about to be the embodiment of the plebeians, they were sacrosanct. Your sacrosanctness was applied by a pledge, take away by the plebeians, come kill any person that harmed or interfered v a tribune during his ax of office. Together such, that was considered a capital offense to damage a tribune, to neglect his veto, or come interfere through his actions. In times of military emergency, a dictator would be appointed for a hatchet of six months. The constitutional federal government would it is in dissolved, and the dictator would be the absolute master of the state. As soon as the dictator’s term ended, constitutional government would be restored.

Executive Magistrates

Magistrates to be the elected officials the the roman republic. Each magistrate was vested with a degree of power, and also the dictator, once there was one, had the highest possible level the power. Listed below the dictator was the censor (when lock existed), and also the consuls, the highest ranking ordinary magistrates. Two were elected every year and wielded supreme strength in both civil and military powers. The ranking among both consuls flipped every month, through one outranking the other.

Below the consuls to be the praetors, that administered civil law, presided end the courts, and also commanded provincial armies. Censors conducted the roman inn census, during which time they might appoint people to the Senate. Curule aediles were officers chosen to conduct residential affairs in Rome, who were vested v powers over the markets, windy games, and also shows. Finally, at the bottom of magistrate rankings were the quaestors, who usually assisted the consuls in Rome and also the governors in the districts with jae won tasks. Plebeian tribunes and also plebeian aediles were thought about representatives that the people, and also acted as a popular examine over the Senate v use of their veto powers, for this reason safeguarding the civil liberties of all roman citizens.

Each magistrate can only veto an activity that was taken by an same or lower ranked magistrate. The most significant constitutional strength a magistrate might hold was the of imperium or command, i beg your pardon was held only through consuls and praetors. This gave the magistrate in inquiry the constitutional authority to worry commands, armed forces or otherwise.

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Election to a magisterial office brought about automatic member in the Senate for life, unless impeached. When a magistrate’s annual term in office expired, he had to wait at the very least ten years before serving in that office again. Occasionally, however, a magistrate would have actually his command powers expanded through prorogation, i m sorry effectively allowed him to maintain the strength of his office as a promagistrate.