Key Points

The Constitution of the Romale Republic was a set of guidelines and also principles passed dvery own, mostly with precedent. The constitution was mostly uncomposed and also uncodified, and evolved over time.Romale citizenship was acrucial prerequisite to possessing many kind of necessary legal rights.The Senate passed decrees that were referred to as senatus consulta, ostensibly “advice” from the senate to a magistrate. The focus of the Romale Senate was usually international policy.Tright here were two types of legislative assemblies. The initially was the comitia (“committees”), which were assemblies of all Roguy citizens. The second was the concilia (“councils”), which were assemblies of certain groups of citizens.The comitia centuriata was the assembly of the centuries (soldiers), and also they chosen magistprices who had actually imperium powers (consuls and praetors). The comitia tributa, or assembly of the tribes (the citizens of Rome), was presided over by a consul and composed of 35 people. They chosen quaestors, cuascendancy aediles, and also army tribunes.Dictators were periodically elected throughout times of military emergency, during which the constitutional federal government would be disbanded.

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A team of ruling class families in prehistoric Rome.


A general body of cost-free Romale citizens that were component of the reduced strata of culture.

Roguy Senate

A political institution in the primitive Roguy Republic. It was not an chosen body, but one whose members were appointed by the consuls, and later by the censors.

The Constitution of the Roguy Republic was a set of guidelines and also values passed dvery own, greatly through precedent. The constitution was largely uncreated and uncodified, and evolved over time. Rather than developing a federal government that was mostly a democracy (as was ancient Athens), an aristocracy (as was primitive Sparta), or a monarchy (as was Rome before, and also in many type of respects after, the Republic), the Romale constitution blended these 3 aspects of administration right into their all at once political system. The autonomous element took the form of legislative assemblies; the aristocratic aspect took the form of the Senate; and the autarchic facet took the create of the many kind of term-restricted consuls.

The Romale SPQR Banner. “SPQR” (senatus populusque romanus) was the Romale motto, which stood for “the Senate and also civilization of Rome.”

The Roman Senate

The Senate’s ultimate authority derived from the esteem and also prestige of the senators, and was based upon both precedent and also custom. The Senate passed decrees, which were called senatus consulta, ostensibly “advice” handed dvery own from the senate to a magistprice. In practice, the magistrates typically complied with the senatus consulta. The focus of the Roguy Senate was commonly international policy. However before, the power of the Senate broadened over time as the power of the legislative assemblies declined, and ultimately the Senate took a greater function in civil law-making. Senators were commonly appointed by Roguy censors, but during times of army emergency, such as the civil battles of the 1st century BCE, this exercise ended up being less prevalent, and the Roguy dictator, triumvir, or the Senate itself would certainly select its members.

Curia Iulia—the Roman Senate Housage. The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum, the seat of the imperial Senate.

Legislative Assemblies

Roman citizenship was a crucial prerequisite to possessing many vital legal rights, such as the rights to trial and appeal, marriage, suffrage, to host office, to enter binding contracts, and also to enjoy distinct taxation exemptions. An adult male citizen via complete legal and political civil liberties was dubbed optimo jure. The optimo jure chosen assemblies, and also the assemblies chosen magistrates, enacted regulation, presided over trials in funding situations, declared war and also tranquility, and forged or dissolved treaties. Tbelow were 2 kinds of legislative assemblies. The initially was the comitia (“committees”), which were assemblies of all optimo jure. The second was the concilia (“councils”), which were assemblies of particular teams of optimo jure.

Citizens on these assemblies were arranged better on the basis of curiae (familial groupings), centuries (for armed forces purposes), and tribes (for civil purposes), and each would certainly each gather into their own assemblies. The Curiate Assembly offered only a symbolic function in the late Republic, though the assembly was supplied to ratify the powers of recently chosen magistprices by passing regulations known as leges curiatae. The comitia centuriata was the assembly of the centuries (soldiers). The president of the comitia centuriata was usually a consul, and the comitia centuriata would elect magistrates that had imperium powers (consuls and also praetors). It likewise elected censors. Only the comitia centuriata can declare battle and ratify the results of a census. It additionally served as the highest court of appeal in specific judicial situations.

The assembly of the tribes, the comitia tributa, was presided over by a consul, and was created of 35 people. The people were not ethnic or kinship teams, but quite geographical subdivisions. While it did not pass many laws, the comitia tributa did elect quaestors, cudominance aediles, and also army tribunes. The Plebeian Council was similar to the assembly of the tribes, but excluded the patricians. They elected their very own police officers, plebeian tribunes, and also plebeian aediles. Normally a plebeian tribune would preside over the assembly. This assembly passed most regulations, and might likewise act as a court of appeal.

Because the tribunes were taken into consideration to be the embodiment of the plebeians, they were sacrosanct. Their sacrosanctness was enforced by a pledge, taken by the plebeians, to kill any perboy who harmed or interfered via a tribune during his term of office. As such, it was taken into consideration a resources offense to damage a tribune, to ignore his veto, or to interfere via his actions. In times of armed forces emergency, a dictator would certainly be appointed for a term of six months. The constitutional government would be dissolved, and also the dictator would certainly be the absolute master of the state. When the dictator’s term ended, constitutional government would be recovered.

Executive Magistrates

Magistrates were the chosen officials of the Roman republic. Each magistprice was vested with a degree of power, and also the dictator, when tbelow was one, had actually the greatest level of power. Below the dictator was the censor (as soon as they existed), and also the consuls, the highest possible ranking ordinary magistrates. Two were chosen every year and wielded supreme power in both civil and also armed forces powers. The ranking among both consuls flipped eincredibly month, through one outranking the various other.

Below the consuls were the praetors, who administered civil law, presided over the courts, and commanded provincial armies. Censors carried out the Romale census, in the time of which time they could appoint world to the Senate. Curule aediles were police officers chosen to conduct residential affairs in Rome, who were vested with powers over the markets, public games, and mirrors. Finally, at the bottom of magistrate ranmajesties were the quaestors, who commonly aided the consuls in Rome and also the governors in the districts via financial work. Plebeian tribunes and plebeian aediles were considered representatives of the civilization, and acted as a famous inspect over the Senate with use of their veto powers, hence safeguarding the civil liberties of all Roman citizens.

Each magistrate might only veto an activity that was taken by an equal or reduced ranked magistrate. The a lot of significant constitutional power a magistrate could hold was that of imperium or command, which was organized only by consuls and also praetors. This gave the magistrate in question the constitutional authority to concern regulates, armed forces or otherwise.

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Election to a magisterial office caused automatic membership in the Senate for life, unless impeached. Once a magistrate’s annual term in office expired, he had to wait at least ten years prior to serving in that office again. Occasionally, yet, a magistrate would certainly have actually his command also powers extended through prorogation, which successfully allowed him to retain the powers of his office as a promagistrate.