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The stomach has actually the capability to expand or contract depending upon the lot of food had within it. When contracted, the interior walls form numerous folds (rugae), i m sorry disappear once the walls space distended. The special mucous-membrane lining that the walls is densely packed with small gastric glands; these secrete a mixture that enzymes and also hydrochloric acid that partially digest proteins and fats.

The stomach muscle are seldom inactive. Upon entry that food, lock relax briefly, then begin to contract. Routine contractions churn and also knead food right into a semifluid mixture dubbed chyme; rhythmical pump (peristaltic) waves relocate food towards the pylorus and little intestine. Peristaltic contractions persist after the stomach empties and, boosting with time, may come to be painful. Together hunger pangs may also be related to the amount of street in the blood. If the level of sugar decreases significantly, hunger can be competent without the stomach’s intervention.


The absorb of food, water, and electrolytes through the stomach is almost negligible, however iron and highly fat-soluble substances such together alcohol and also some drugs are soaked up directly. Secretions and also movements that the stomach are managed by the vagus nerve and the sympathetic nervous system; emotional stress can transform normal stomach functions. Usual stomach disorders include peptic ulcer, cancer, and gastritis.

Other animals

The stomachs of some other animals differ significantly from the of humans; numerous have multiple-chambered offal or unique adaptations. The stomachs that cows and also most cud-chewing (ruminant) pets are split into four separate parts. Food is received very first in the rumen, whereby mucus is added and cellulose is broken down. Next, that goes ago to the mouth come be extensively rechewed. As soon as swallowed again, the is passed come the 2nd and 3rd chambers, the reticulum and omasum, whereby water is extracted and also absorbed. The food then goes come a final chamber, the abomasum, to obtain the cradle enzymes.

Birds have actually a three-chambered stomach: the very first chamber, the crop, obtain the food initially and also either stores or starts to moisten and soften (macerate) it; the true stomach area adds cradle juices; and the gizzard, v its stones, or toothlike structures, grinds the food.

Rodents have only one stomach area, and many have to eat your food twice prior to absorption bring away place. Food is eaten and also passed through the lower digestive tract, whereby it is coated v metabolites to help break it down. The fecal material is then re-eaten and also mixed with added food. Enzymes and also water are removed from the once-passed product by the stomach and also used to aid digest brand-new nutritional substances. Dried fecal pellets are ultimately excreted.

The starfish have the right to turn that is stomach inside out and also extrude it partially from the human body to eat the soft materials of shelled pets such together clams. Camels and llamas have the right to regurgitate your stomach contents and spit this product at approaching enemies. Crayfish produce stones that calcium salts in your stomach. These room stored till the pet sheds its outside shell, once the stones are reabsorbed through the stomach and also used in forming a new shell.

See more: Body Fluids Supply The Tissues Continuously With Energy, Oxygen, And Nutrients, Including Water.

The editors of Encyclopaedia derekwadsworth.comThis post was most recently revised and also updated by Adam Augustyn, regulating Editor, recommendation Content.