Dry cell Battery

A dry-cell battery offers an immobilized electrolyte the minimizes humidity and permits for exceptional portability.

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Learning Objectives

Discuss the operational contents of a dried cell battery and their major benefits


Key Takeaways

Key PointsA battery consists of electrochemical cells that have the right to store chemical energy to be converted to electric energy.A dry-cell battery stores energy in an immobilized electrolyte paste, i beg your pardon minimizes the need for water.Common instances of dry-cell batteries incorporate zinc-carbon batteries and alkaline batteries.Key Termscathode: The electrode of one electrochemical cell at which palliation occurs.electrolyte: A problem that, in equipment or when molten, ionizes and conducts electricity.anode: The electrode of one electrochemical cabinet at i beg your pardon oxidation occurs.

Defining a dried Cell

In electricity, a battery is a machine consisting that one or an ext electrochemical cells that transform stored chemical energy into electrical energy. The dry cell is one of many general species of electrochemical cells.

A dry cell has the electrolyte immobilized as a paste, with only sufficient moisture in the to allow current to flow. Uneven a wet cell, a dried cell have the right to operate in any orientation without spilling, together it contains no cost-free liquid. This versatility makes it perfect for portable equipment. By comparison, the an initial wet-cell batteries were generally fragile glass containers v lead rods hanging indigenous an open up top. They, therefore, needed careful handling to protect against spillage. The breakthrough of the dry-cell battery enabled for a significant advance in battery safety and also portability.

A typical dry-cell battery is the zinc-carbon battery, which provides a cell the is sometimes called the Leclanché cell. The cabinet is comprised of an outer zinc container, i m sorry acts together the anode. The cathode is a central carbon rod, surrounding by a mixture the carbon and manganese(IV) dioxide (MnO2). The electrolyte is a dough of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). A fibrous towel separates the two electrodes, and also a brass pen in the center of the cell conducts electrical energy to the external circuit.


A zinc-carbon dry-cell battery: an illustration that a zinc-carbon dried cell. In it, a zinc casing acts as the anode, neighboring a carbon rod, i beg your pardon acts as a cathode. Between them, the electrolyte paste works as the battery.


Chemical reactions happen in every component of the battery to allow for power storage; the reactions deserve to be described using balanced chemical equations that delineate the electron flow. The dough of ammonium chloride reacts according come the following half-reaction:

2\textNH_4 (\textaq) + 2\texte^- \rightarrow 2\textNH_3 (\textg) + \textH_2 (\textg)

The manganese(IV) oxide in the cell gets rid of the hydrogen developed by the ammonium chloride, according to the adhering to reaction:

2\textMnO_2 (\texts) + \textH_2 (\textg) \rightarrow \textMn_2\textO_3 (\texts) + \textH_2\textO (\textl)

The combined result of these two reactions takes location at the cathode. Adding these two reactions together, us get:

2\textNH_4 (\textaq) + 2\textMnO_2 (\texts) +2\texte^ \rightarrow \textMn_2\textO_3 (\texts) + 2\textNH_3 (\textg) + \textH_2\textO (\textl)

Finally, the anode half-reaction is as follows:

\textZn (\texts) \rightarrow \textZn^2+ + 2\texte^-

Therefore, the all at once equation for the cabinet is:

\textZn (\texts) + 2\textMnO_2 (\texts) + 2\textNH_4 (\textaq) \rightarrow \textMn_2\textO_3 (\texts) + \textH_2\textO (\textl) + \textZn_2 + 2\textNH_3 (\textg)

The potential for the above reaction is 1.50 V.

Another instance of a dry-cell battery is the alkaline battery. Alkaline batteries are nearly the very same as zinc-carbon batteries, other than that the electrolyte offered is potassium hydroxide (KOH) quite than ammonium chloride. In some more modern-day types that so-called “high-power” batteries that have actually a much lower capacity than conventional alkaline batteries, the ammonium chloride is replaced by zinc chloride.


Mercury Battery

Mercury batteries were a common electrochemical battery the were phased the end of mainstream usage in the U.S. By the 1996 Battery Act.


Learning Objectives

Discuss the applications the a mercury-oxide battery


Key Takeaways

Key PointsMercury batteries were an extremely common in the 20th century and also were provided in plenty of common tiny and big appliances.Advantages of the mercury battery incorporate its lengthy shelf life and steady voltage output.Mercury batteries usage a mercury compound as the cathode with a zinc anode.Along with other batteries that relied on hefty metals, mercury batteries were phased the end by the Battery Act, i beg your pardon sought to decrease the environmental influence of disposable batteries.Key Termsanode: The electrode of an electrochemical cabinet at i beg your pardon oxidation occurs.electrolyte: A substance that, in solution or when molten, ionizes and also conducts electricity.cathode: The electrode of one electrochemical cabinet at which reduction occurs.

A mercury battery, likewise called a mercuric oxide battery or a mercury cell, is a non-rechargeable electrochemical battery. These batteries have been used in the shape of switch cells for watches, hearing aids, and also calculators, and also in larger creates for other devices, including walkie-talkies.


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Mercury clock battery: Mercury batteries are convenient because of your size. This is a small watch mercury battery.


Mercury batteries have the advantages of a lengthy shelf life of as much as 10 years and also steady voltage output. Although this batteries were really common in the mid-20th century, the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery administration Act (the Battery Act) happen in 1996 in the unified States has largely phased out mercury batteries because of environmental concerns.

Mercury batteries usage either pure mercuric oxide or a mixture that mercuric oxide v manganese dioxide as the cathode. Mercury oxide cell are created with a zinc anode, a mercury oxide cathode, and also potassium hydroxide or salt hydroxide as the electrolyte. Due to the fact that mercuric oxide is a non-conductor, part graphite is combined with it. This helps avoid the arsenal of mercury into huge droplets. During discharge, zinc oxidizes to zinc oxide, and also mercuric oxide gets reduced to elemental mercury. A small extra mercuric oxide is put into the cabinet to prevent evolution of hydrogen gas in ~ the end of that life.

In a mercury battery, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide is supplied as an electrolyte. Sodium hydroxide cells have actually nearly continuous voltage at short discharge currents, make them ideal for hearing aids, calculators, and also electronic watches. Potassium hydroxide cells, in turn, provide continuous voltage at higher currents, do them an ideal for applications requiring existing surges, such as photographic cameras through flash and also watches with a backlight. Potassium hydroxide cells also have far better performance at lower temperatures.

The Battery Act

In 1996, the Mercury-Containing and also Rechargeable Battery management Act (the Battery Act; Public law 104-142) was signed right into law in the joined States. The intended objective of the act was to reduce heavy metals in municipal waste, streams, and also ground water. This resulted from the handle of mercury in single-use batteries, and also of various other toxic metal content such as lead native lead-acid batteries and also the cadmium in rechargeable batteries. The law because of this sought to phase the end the use of mercury in batteries because of the environmental damages it caused.


Lead warehouse Battery

Lead-acid batteries provide high currents and also store charge for lengthy periods of time, making them essential for vehicles.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsLead- mountain batteries, additionally known as lead storage batteries, can store a many charge and administer high existing for brief periods that time.The basic design of lead-acid batteries has not readjusted significantly due to the fact that 1859 once Planté designed them, back some renovations were made by Faure.Lead-acid batteries are qualified of gift recharged, i beg your pardon is important for their use in cars.Discharging the stored power relies ~ above both the hopeful and negative plates becoming lead(II) sulfate and also the electrolyte losing much the its dissolved sulfuric acid.Key Termslignosulfonate: Water-soluble anionic polyelectrolyte polymers; they space byproducts native the manufacturing of wood pulp using sulfite pulping.

Lead Batteries

A command storage battery, additionally known as a lead-acid battery, is the oldest kind of rechargeable battery and also one that the most usual energy warehouse devices. These batteries were created in 1859 through French physicist Gaston Planté, and they space still provided in a selection of applications. Most world are accustomed to utilizing them in vehicles, whereby they have actually the ability to administer high currents because that cranking power.

Although the batteries space reliable, they have actually a limited life, are hefty to ship, and contain toxic products that require details removal methods at the end of their beneficial life. Lead-acid batteries have actually moderate power thickness and an excellent response time. Relying on the strength conversion an innovation incorporated, batteries have the right to go native accepting power to supplying power instantaneously. Lead-acid batteries are impacted by temperature and also must be kept in bespeak to accomplish maximum life expectancy.

Designing a lead Battery

In Planté’s style of the lead-acid cell, the positive and negative plates to be made out of two spirals of lead foil, separated v a paper of cloth, and coiled up. The cell initially had actually low capacity. A slow process of “forming” was forced to corrode the lead foils, producing lead dioxide ~ above the plates and roughening lock to boost surface area. Planté plates room still used in some stationary applications, where the plates space mechanically grooved to boost surface area.


Lead storage battery: A diagram showing just how a lead storage battery consists of 6 two-volt cells associated in series. The comprise of each cell is additionally shown.


Camille Alphonse Faure’s pasted-plate building and construction is usual of automotive batteries today. Each plate is composed of a rectangle-shaped lead grid. The holes of the grid are filled through a paste of red lead and also 33 percent dilute sulfuric acid. This porous paste allows the mountain to react through the lead within the plate, which boosts the surface area. As soon as dry, the plates room stacked with an ideal separators and also inserted into the battery container. One odd number of plates is typically used, through one more negative plate than positive. Each alternating plate is connected.

The paste includes carbon black, barium sulfate, and lignosulfonate. The barium sulfate acts together a seed crystal for the lead-to-lead sulfate reaction. The lignosulfonate prevents the an adverse plate from creating a hard mass throughout the discharge cycle, and also instead permits the formation of lengthy needle-like crystals. Carbon black color counteracts the result of inhibiting formation caused by the lignosulfonates.

Discharge Chemistry

In the discharged state, both the optimistic and an unfavorable plates end up being lead(II) sulfate (PbSO4). The electrolyte loses lot of its liquified sulfuric acid and also becomes mainly water. The discharge process is moved by the conduction of electrons from the negative plate earlier into the cabinet at the hopeful plate in the external circuit.

Negative plate reaction: Pb(s) + HSO4–(aq) → PbSO4(s) + H+(aq) + 2e–

Positive key reaction: PbO2(s) + HSO4–(aq) + 3H+(aq) + 2e– → PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)

Combining these two reactions, one can determine the all at once reaction:

Pb(s) + PbO2(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2HSO4–(aq) → 2PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)

Charge Chemistry

This kind of battery deserve to be recharged. In the fee state, every cell contains negative plates that elemental lead (Pb) and positive bowl of lead(IV) oxide (PbO2) in one electrolyte of about 4.2 M sulfuric mountain (H2SO4). The charging process is moved by the forcible remove of electron from the hopeful plate and the forcible arrival of them come the an adverse plate by the charging source.

Negative bowl reaction: PbSO4(s) + H+(aq) + 2e– → Pb(s) + HSO4–(aq)

Positive plate reaction: PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l) → PbO2(s) + HSO4–(aq) + 3H+(aq) + 2e–

Combining these two reactions, the in its entirety reaction is the turning back of the discharge reaction:

2PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l) → Pb(s) + PbO2(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2HSO4–(aq)

Notice exactly how the charging reaction is the exact opposite the the discharge reaction.


Other Rechargeable Batteries

The need for plenty of varieties of rechargeable battery is because of their reduced cost and also lower environmental impact.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsRechargeable batteries store energy through a reversible chemical reaction, which allows charge to it is in stored again after the battery has actually been drained.Rechargeable batteries have lower complete cost the use and environmental impact than disposable batteries, which can be why the U.S. Need for rechargeable battery is cultivation much faster than is the demand for non-rechargeable batteries.Common varieties of rechargeable batteries room lead-acid, nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel- metal hydride (NiMH), lithium- ion (Li-ion), lithium-ion polymer (LiPo), and also rechargeable alkaline batteries.Key Termssecondary cell: An electrical cell that is rechargeable because it converts chemical energy into electric energy by a reversible chemical reaction.energy density: The amount of energy that have the right to be stored loved one to the volume that the battery.

Rechargeable Batteries

A rechargeable battery is a form of electrical battery the is made up of one or more electrochemical cells. It is well-known as a second cell due to the fact that its electrochemical reactions are electrically reversible. In various other words, after the save on computer charge has actually been drained, the battery’s chemical reactions can take place again, in reverse, to save a brand-new charge. The U.S. Need for rechargeable batteries is growing twice as rapid as the need for non-rechargeable batteries, in component because rechargeable batteries have lower environmental affect and total cost of use than perform disposable batteries.

Grid energy storage applications use rechargeable batteries because that load-leveling. Load-leveling involves storing electrical energy because that use throughout peak fill period. Through charging batteries during periods of low electrical need for use during periods of high demand, load-leveling helps remove the require for high-quality peaking power plants and also helps mitigate the expense of generators over more hours of operation.

Rechargeable Battery Construction

As through all batteries, rechargeable batteries consist of an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte. During charging, the anode material is oxidized, developing electrons, and also the cathode is reduced, spend electrons.


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Charging a battery: chart of charging a battery.


These electron constitute the current flow in the exterior circuit. The electrolyte may serve together a simple buffer for inner ion flow in between the electrodes, as in lithium-ion and also nickel-cadmium cells, or it may be an energetic participant in the electrochemical reaction, as in lead-acid cells.

Types that Rechargeable Batteries

Several different combinations of chemistry are commonly used in rechargeable batteries. Different species include lead-acid, nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel-metal hydride (NiMH), lithium-ion (Li-ion), lithium-ion polymer (LiPo), and rechargeable alkaline batteries.

Lead-Acid Batteries

Lead-acid batteries, created in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, space the oldest type of rechargeable battery. Their capacity to supply high-surge currents method that the cells keep a relatively big power-to-weight ratio. This features, in addition to their low cost, make them attractive for usage in engine vehicles, which require high currents.

Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries

A nickel-metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH or Ni-MH, is very similar to the nickel-cadmium cell (NiCd). NiMH battery use hopeful electrodes of nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH), together does the NiCd, but the an unfavorable electrodes use a hydrogen-absorbing alloy instead of cadmium. A NiMH battery can have 2 to three times the volume of a NiCd battery of identical size, and its energy density approaches that of a lithium-ion cell.

Lithium-Ion Batteries

The lithium-ion battery is a family members of rechargeable battery in i m sorry lithium ions relocate from the negative electrode to the positive electrode throughout discharge, and ago when charging. The negative electrode that a typical lithium-ion cabinet is do from carbon. The positive electrode is a metal oxide, and also the electrolyte is a lithium salt in an necessary solvent. Lock are among the most popular species of rechargeable battery for portable electronics, with among the ideal energy densities and only a slow-moving loss that charge as soon as not in use. Lithium ion batteries are more expensive 보다 NiCd batteries however operate over a broader temperature variety while being smaller and lighter. They space fragile and also thus need a protective circuit to limit peak voltages.

Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

Lithium-ion polymer (LiPo) batteries are usually written of several identical secondary cells in parallel to rise the discharge-current capability. They are often easily accessible in collection “packs” to rise the total accessible voltage. Their primary distinction from lithium-ion batteries is that their lithium salt electrolyte is not hosted in an organic solvent. Instead, the is in a solid polymer composite, such together polyethylene oxide or polyacrylonitrile. The benefits of LiPo end the lithium-ion architecture include perhaps lower cost of manufacture, adaptability to a wide variety of packaging shapes, reliability, and also ruggedness. Their significant disadvantage is the they host less charge.

Alkaline Batteries

There are also rechargeable creates of alkaline batteries, which space a type of main battery dependent ~ above the reaction in between zinc (Zn) and manganese dioxide (MnO2). They space manufactured totally charged and have the capability to carry their charge for years, much longer than many NiCd and also NiMH batteries, i m sorry self-discharge. Rechargeable alkaline battery can likewise have a high recharging efficiency and have less environmental influence than disposable cells.


The Lithium-Ion Battery

Lithium-ion batteries room rechargeable batteries typically used in consumer electronics; they depend on Li+ migration.


Learning Objectives

Discuss the chemical changes that occur in a lithium-ion battery during charge and discharge


Key Takeaways

Key PointsSuperior energy densities, no memory effect, and only a sluggish loss of charge as soon as not in usage make lithium- ion batteries typical for usage in consumer electronics, military, electrical vehicle, and aerospace applications.The anode is typically a lithium-containing compound and the cathode is frequently a carbon-containing compound.The discharging reaction counts on the lithium ion from the electrolyte gift extracted indigenous the cathode and moved come the anode, when the the contrary is true in the charging reaction.Key Termsanode: The electrode of an electrochemical cabinet at i m sorry oxidation occurs.cathode: The electrode of one electrochemical cell at which reduction occurs.electrolyte: A problem that, in solution or as soon as molten, ionizes and conducts electricity.

Lithium-ion battery (Li-ion batteries, or LIBs) are a family of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the an adverse electrode to the positive electrode throughout discharge. The ions follow the turning back path when the battery is charging. Li-ion batteries use a lithium compound as the electrode material.

Uses because that Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lithium-ion batteries are usual in customer electronics. Castle are among the many popular types of rechargeable battery for portable electronics because they have one the the finest energy densities and only a slow-moving loss of charge when not in use.


Laptop lithium-ion battery: The lithium-ion battery is good for use in portable electronics, including laptops.


Beyond the ar of consumer electronics, LIBs are likewise growing in popularity because that military, electrical vehicle, and also aerospace applications. Research is yielding a stream of improvements to timeless LIB technology, focusing on energy density, durability, cost, and also safety.

Types the Lithium-Ion Batteries

Chemistry, performance, cost, and also safety features vary with the form of LIB. Handheld electronic devices mostly use LIBs based upon lithium cobalt oxide (LCO), which sell high power density however have popular safety concerns, particularly when damaged. Lithium stole phosphate (LFP), lithium manganese oxide (LMO), and also lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LiNMC) batteries market lower power density yet longer lives and inherent safety. These chemical compositions, or chemistries, space being widely provided for powering electric tools and also medical equipment.

Charging and also Discharging

The 3 participants in the electrochemical reaction in a lithium-ion battery are the anode, the cathode, and also the electrolyte. Both the anode, which is a lithium-containing compound, and also the cathode, which is a carbon-containing compound, room materials right into which lithium ions have the right to migrate. The electrolyte is a lithium salt in an necessary solvent. When a lithium-based cabinet is discharging, the hopeful lithium ion is extract from the cathode and also inserted into the anode, publication stored energy in the process. When the cell is charging, the turning back occurs.

Materials because that Cathodes and also Anodes

The many commercially well-known cathode material is graphite. The anode is generally one of 3 materials: a layered oxide (such as lithium cobalt oxide), a polyanion (such together lithium stole phosphate), or a spinel (such as lithium manganese oxide). The electrolyte is generally a mixture of organic carbonates, such together ethylene carbonate or diethyl carbonate, include complexes the lithium ions.

In a lithium-ion battery, the lithium ions room transported to and from the cathode or anode. The shift metal, cobalt (Co), oxidizes from Co3+ come Co4+ throughout charging and reduces native Co4+ come Co3+ during discharge.


Fuel Cells

Fuel cells are a compelling different to batteries, yet they room still in the beforehand stages that development.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsA fuel cell is a an equipment that counter the chemical energy from fuel into power via a chemical reaction with oxygen or one more oxidizing agent.Batteries job-related in a close up door system, when fuel cells call for their reaction to it is in replenished.Using hydrogen as the significant fuel resource in fuel cells has actually several pros and also cons that have kept the controversial for mainstream use.Fuel cell are comprised of three surrounding segments: the anode, the electrolyte, and the cathode.Key Termsanode: The electrode of one electrochemical cell at which oxidation occurs.fuel cell: A device that counter the chemical energy from a fuel into power through a chemistry reaction with oxygen or an additional oxidizing agent.cathode: The electrode of one electrochemical cabinet at which palliation occurs.battery: A device that produces electrical energy by a chemistry reaction between two substances.

Introduction and History

A fuel cabinet is a an equipment that converts the chemical energy from fuel into electricity via a chemical reaction through oxygen or one more oxidizing agent. Hydrogen is the most typical fuel, however hydrocarbons together as organic gas and alcohols are sometimes used. Fuel cell are different from battery in the they call for a constant source that fuel and oxygen to run, however they can develop electricity continually because that as lengthy as this inputs space supplied. The breakthrough of miniature fuel cell can administer a cheap, efficient, and also reusable alternative to batteries.

William Grove emerged the very first crude fuel cell in 1839. The first commercial use of fuel cells was in NASA an are programs to generate power for probes, satellites, and space capsules. Currently, fuel cells are offered for primary and backup strength for commercial, industrial, and residential buildings and also in far or inaccessible areas. Lock are used to power fuel-cell vehicles, consisting of automobiles, buses, forklifts, airplanes, boats, motorcycles, and submarines.

Fuel cell Structure and also Function

There space many varieties of fuel cells, but they all consist of an anode, i beg your pardon is the an adverse side, a cathode, i m sorry is the hopeful side, and also an electrolyte, which allows charges come move in between the two sides of the fuel cell.


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Fuel cell: Fuel cells transform the chemical power from fuel into electrical energy via a chemistry reaction through oxygen or an additional oxidizing agent. However, utilizing hydrogen together the major fuel source in fuel cells has several pros and cons that have kept that controversial for mainstream use.


Electrons are drawn from the anode to the cathode v an external circuit, producing direct-current electricity. Fuel cells room classified by the electrolyte they use, which is the key difference amongst the various types of fuel cells. Separation, personal, instance fuel cells produce relatively small electrical potentials, around 0.7 volts, therefore cells are “stacked,” or inserted in series, to rise the voltage. In enhancement to electricity, fuel cells develop water, heat, and, depending upon the fuel source, very small amounts that nitrogen dioxide and other emissions. The energy performance of a fuel cabinet is generally between 40-60 percent; it deserve to reach 85 percent if waste warmth is recorded for use.

Despite the selection of fuel cabinet types, they all occupational in the same general manner. 2 chemical reactions occur at the interfaces the the three various segments. The net result of the 2 reactions is that fuel is consumed, water or carbon dioxide is produced, and also an electric current is created, which have the right to be used to power electric devices, usually referred to as the “load.”

At the anode, a catalyst oxidizes the fuel, typically hydrogen, turning the fuel into a positively fee ion and also a negatively fee electron. The electrolyte is a substance the is especially designed so the ions have the right to pass with it yet electrons cannot. The freed electron travel through a wire, producing the electric current. The ions travel through the electrolyte to the cathode. There, the ions are rejoined with the electrons, and the 2 react v a third chemical, commonly oxygen, to create water or carbon dioxide.

The Pros and Cons that Fuel Cells

The use of hydrogen fuel cells is controversial in some applications. First of all, since the energy used to develop the hydrogen is similar to the energy in the hydrogen, that is inefficient, and also therefore expensive. If standard power tree were provided to create the hydrogen there would certainly be, at best, no positive adjust in current pollution rates. Other types of fuel cells don’t face this problem. Because that example, biological fuel cells take glucose and methanol from food scraps and convert them into hydrogen and also food for the bacteria that break that down.

There room several benefits to hydrogen fuel cells, though. If the electricity created by clean, renewable power sources, such together solar and wind power, is offered to develop hydrogen, the energy can it is in stored an ext easily 보다 in big battery complexes.

There are practical difficulties to be get rid of as well. Back the use of fuel cells because that consumer assets is probable in the near future, most current designs won’t work-related if oriented upside-down. Additionally, existing fuel cells cannot be scaled to the tiny size needed for portable tools such together cell phones. Current designs also require venting and also therefore cannot operate under water. They may not it is in usable top top aircraft due to the fact that of the danger of fuel leaks through the vents. Finally, modern technologies for for sure refueling of customer fuel cells space not however in place.

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Fuel cell in a car: Fuel cells are a potential energy resource for car that execute not run on gasoline. However, back fuel cells sell clean, renewable energy, there are several barriers to its prevalent adoption.