Dry Cell Battery

A dry-cell battery supplies an immobilized electrolyte that minimizes moisture and enables for superior portcapacity.

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Learning Objectives

Discuss the operational components of a dry cell battery and their principal benefits


Key Takeaways

Key PointsA battery consists of electrochemical cells that can save chemical power to be converted to electrical power.A dry-cell battery stores energy in an immobilized electrolyte paste, which minimizes the need for water.Common examples of dry-cell batteries encompass zinc-carbon batteries and alkaline batteries.Key Termscathode: The electrode of an electrochemical cell at which reduction occurs.electrolyte: A substance that, in solution or as soon as molten, ionizes and also conducts electrical power.anode: The electrode of an electrochemical cell at which oxidation occurs.

Defining a Dry Cell

In electricity, a battery is an equipment consisting of one or more electrochemical cells that transform stored chemical power right into electrical energy. The dry cell is one of many basic forms of electrochemical cells.

A dry cell has actually the electrolyte immobilized as a paste, through only sufficient moisture in it to permit current to flow. Unfavor a wet cell, a dry cell can operate in any kind of orientation without spilling, as it consists of no complimentary liquid. This versatility provides it suitable for portable devices. By compariboy, the first wet-cell batteries were typically vulnerable glass containers via lead rods hanging from an open height. They, therefore, required mindful managing to prevent spillage. The advance of the dry-cell battery allowed for a significant breakthrough in battery safety and also portcapability.

A prevalent dry-cell battery is the zinc-carbon battery, which provides a cell that is occasionally referred to as the Leclanché cell. The cell is comprised of an outer zinc container, which acts as the anode. The cathode is a central carbon rod, surrounded by a mixture of carbon and also manganese(IV) dioxide (MnO2). The electrolyte is a paste of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). A fibrous towel separates the two electrodes, and a brass pin in the center of the cell conducts electrical energy to the outside circuit.


A zinc-carbon dry-cell battery: An illustration of a zinc-carbon dry cell. In it, a zinc casing acts as the anode, surrounding a carbon rod, which acts as a cathode. Between them, the electrolyte paste works as the battery.


Chemical reactions occur in eexceptionally component of the battery to allow for power storage; the reactions deserve to be defined utilizing well balanced chemical equations that delineate the electron circulation. The paste of ammonium chloride reacts according to the complying with half-reaction:

2 extNH_4 ( extaq) + 2 exte^- ightarrow 2 extNH_3 ( extg) + extH_2 ( extg)

The manganese(IV) oxide in the cell removes the hydrogen produced by the ammonium chloride, according to the complying with reaction:

2 extMnO_2 ( exts) + extH_2 ( extg) ightarrow extMn_2 extO_3 ( exts) + extH_2 extO ( extl)

The merged outcome of these two reactions takes location at the cathode. Adding these 2 reactions together, we get:

2 extNH_4 ( extaq) + 2 extMnO_2 ( exts) +2 exte^ ightarrow extMn_2 extO_3 ( exts) + 2 extNH_3 ( extg) + extH_2 extO ( extl)

Finally, the anode half-reactivity is as follows:

extZn ( exts) ightarrowhead extZn^2+ + 2 exte^-

Thus, the in its entirety equation for the cell is:

extZn ( exts) + 2 extMnO_2 ( exts) + 2 extNH_4 ( extaq) ightarrow extMn_2 extO_3 ( exts) + extH_2 extO ( extl) + extZn_2 + 2 extNH_3 ( extg)

The potential for the over reactivity is 1.50 V.

Another example of a dry-cell battery is the alkaline battery. Alkaline batteries are virtually the same as zinc-carbon batteries, except that the electrolyte provided is potassium hydroxide (KOH) rather than ammonium chloride. In some more modern-day kinds of so-referred to as “high-power” batteries that have actually a a lot lower capacity than typical alkaline batteries, the ammonium chloride is reput by zinc chloride.


Mercury Battery

Mercury batteries were a widespread electrochemical battery that were phased out of mainstream use in the U.S. by the 1996 Battery Act.


Learning Objectives

Discuss the applications of a mercury-oxide battery


Key Takeaways

Key PointsMercury batteries were exceptionally common in the 20th century and were provided in many kind of widespread tiny and big appliances.Advantperiods of the mercury battery incorporate its lengthy shelf life and also stable voltage output.Mercury batteries usage a mercury compound as the cathode via a zinc anode.Along via other batteries that relied on hefty steels, mercury batteries were phased out by the Battery Act, which sought to decrease the ecological impact of disposable batteries.Key Termsanode: The electrode of an electrochemical cell at which oxidation occurs.electrolyte: A substance that, in solution or once molten, ionizes and also conducts electrical power.cathode: The electrode of an electrochemical cell at which reduction occurs.

A mercury battery, also called a mercuric oxide battery or a mercury cell, is a non-rechargeable electrochemical battery. These batteries have actually been offered in the shape of switch cells for watches, hearing aids, and also calculators, and also in larger creates for various other gadgets, consisting of walkie-talkies.


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Mercury watch battery: Mercury batteries are convenient bereason of their size. This is a small watch mercury battery.


Mercury batteries have the benefits of a long shelf life of up to 10 years and also steady voltage output. Although these batteries were incredibly widespread in the mid-20th century, the Mercury-Containing and also Rechargeable Battery Management Act (the Battery Act) passed in 1996 in the United States has greatly phased out mercury batteries as a result of environmental concerns.

Mercury batteries use either pure mercuric oxide or a mixture of mercuric oxide via manganese dioxide as the cathode. Mercury oxide cells are created via a zinc anode, a mercury oxide cathode, and potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide as the electrolyte. Due to the fact that mercuric oxide is a non-conductor, some graphite is mixed via it. This helps proccasion the arsenal of mercury into huge dropallows. During discharge, zinc oxidizes to zinc oxide, and also mercuric oxide gets decreased to elepsychological mercury. A little bit additional mercuric oxide is put into the cell to proccasion evolution of hydrogen gas at the end of its life.

In a mercury battery, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide is supplied as an electrolyte. Sodium hydroxide cells have nearly constant voltage at low discharge curleas, making them appropriate for hearing aids, calculators, and digital watches. Potassium hydroxide cells, consequently, provide continuous voltage at better curleas, making them suitable for applications requiring current surges, such as photographic camperiods through flash and also watches via a backlight. Potassium hydroxide cells also have much better performance at reduced temperatures.

The Battery Act

In 1996, the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act (the Battery Act; Public legislation 104-142) was signed right into regulation in the USA. The intfinished objective of the act wregarding reduce heavy steels in municipal waste, streams, and ground water. This resulted from the disposal of mercury in single-usage batteries, and of various other toxic metal content such as lead from lead-acid batteries and the cadmium in rechargeable batteries. The legislation therefore smust phase out the use of mercury in batteries due to the environmental damage it resulted in.


Lead Storage Battery

Lead-acid batteries provide high currental fees and also store charge for lengthy durations of time, making them important for vehicles.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsLead- acid batteries, additionally known as lead storage batteries, deserve to keep a lot of charge and also administer high current for short durations of time.The standard style of lead-acid batteries has actually not adjusted significantly given that 1859 once Planté designed them, although some renovations were made by Faure.Lead-acid batteries are qualified of being recharged, which is vital for their use in cars.Discharging the stored energy relies on both the positive and negative plates coming to be lead(II) sulfate and the electrolyte shedding much of its liquified sulfuric acid.Key Termslignosulfonate: Water-soluble anionic polyelectrolyte polymers; they are bycommodities from the production of timber pulp making use of sulfite pulping.

Lead Batteries

A lead storage battery, likewise known as a lead-acid battery, is the oldest type of rechargeable battery and one of the most widespread energy storage tools. These batteries were designed in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, and they are still supplied in a variety of applications. Most human being are accustomed to utilizing them in vehicles, wright here they have the capability to provide high currents for cranking power.

Although the batteries are trustworthy, they have actually a restricted life, are heavy to ship, and also contain toxic materials that call for certain removal techniques at the finish of their beneficial life. Lead-acid batteries have actually modeprice power thickness and great response time. Depfinishing on the power convariation technology integrated, batteries can go from accepting power to giving power instantaneously. Lead-acid batteries are impacted by temperature and also must be preserved in order to attain maximum life span.

Designing a Lead Battery

In Planté’s design of the lead-acid cell, the positive and also negative plates were made out of 2 spirals of lead foil, separated with a sheet of cloth, and coiled up. The cells initially had actually low capacity. A slow-moving process of “forming” was forced to corrode the lead foils, creating lead dioxide on the plates and also roughening them to increase surface location. Planté plates are still supplied in some stationary applications, where the plates are mechanically grooved to rise surface area.


Lead storage battery: A diagram reflecting just how a lead storage battery is composed of six two-volt cells associated in series. The comprise of each cell is additionally shown.


Camille Alphonse Faure’s pasted-plate building and construction is typical of automotive batteries today. Each plate consists of a rectangular lead grid. The holes of the grid are filled via a paste of red lead and 33 percent dilute sulfuric acid. This porous paste permits the acid to react via the lead inside the plate, which increases the surchallenge location. Once dry, the plates are stacked with suitable separators and also put right into the battery container. An odd variety of plates is commonly supplied, with one more negative plate than positive. Each different plate is connected.

The paste includes carbon black, barium sulfate, and also lignosulfonate. The barium sulfate acts as a seed crystal for the lead-to-lead sulfate reactivity. The lignosulfonate avoids the negative plate from developing a solid mass throughout the discharge cycle, and also rather allows the formation of long needle-favor crystals. Carbon babsence counteracts the effect of inhibiting formation led to by the lignosulfonates.

Discharge Chemistry

In the discharged state, both the positive and also negative plates come to be lead(II) sulfate (PbSO4). The electrolyte loses a lot of its dissolved sulfuric acid and also becomes primarily water. The discharge procedure is driven by the conduction of electrons from the negative plate earlier into the cell at the positive plate in the exterior circuit.

Negative plate reaction: Pb(s) + HSO4–(aq) → PbSO4(s) + H+(aq) + 2e–

Positive plate reaction: PbO2(s) + HSO4–(aq) + 3H+(aq) + 2e– → PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)

Combining these 2 reactions, one can determine the in its entirety reaction:

Pb(s) + PbO2(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2HSO4–(aq) → 2PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)

Charge Chemistry

This type of battery deserve to be recharged. In the charged state, each cell has negative plates of elepsychological lead (Pb) and also positive plates of lead(IV) oxide (PbO2) in an electrolyte of around 4.2 M sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The charging process is thrust by the forcible removal of electrons from the positive plate and the forcible advent of them to the negative plate by the charging resource.

Negative plate reaction: PbSO4(s) + H+(aq) + 2e– → Pb(s) + HSO4–(aq)

Hopeful plate reaction: PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l) → PbO2(s) + HSO4–(aq) + 3H+(aq) + 2e–

Combining these 2 reactions, the all at once reaction is the reverse of the discharge reaction:

2PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l) → Pb(s) + PbO2(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2HSO4–(aq)

Notice just how the charging reaction is the exact oppowebsite of the discharge reactivity.


Other Rechargeable Batteries

The demand for many arrays of rechargeable batteries is due to their lower expense and lower environmental impact.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsRechargeable batteries store energy with a reversible chemical reaction, which permits charge to be stored aget after the battery has been drained.Rechargeable batteries have reduced full cost of use and also ecological influence than disposable batteries, which could be why the U.S. demand for rechargeable batteries is thriving much faster than is the demand also for non-rechargeable batteries.Common types of rechargeable batteries are lead-acid, nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel- steel hydride (NiMH), lithium- ion (Li-ion), lithium-ion polymer (LiPo), and rechargeable alkaline batteries.Key Termsadditional cell: An electrical cell that is rechargeable because it converts chemical energy right into electrical energy by a reversible chemical reaction.power density: The amount of power that can be stored family member to the volume of the battery.

Rechargeable Batteries

A rechargeable battery is a kind of electric battery that is comprised of one or even more electrochemical cells. It is known as an additional cell bereason its electrochemical reactions are electrically reversible. In other words, after the stored charge has been drained, the battery’s chemical reactions deserve to occur again, in reverse, to save a new charge. The U.S. demand for rechargeable batteries is flourishing twice as rapid as the demand also for non-rechargeable batteries, in part bereason rechargeable batteries have reduced ecological affect and also full cost of usage than do disposable batteries.

Grid power storage applications usage rechargeable batteries for load-leveling. Load-leveling entails storing electric energy for use throughout peak pack period. By charging batteries throughout durations of low electrical demand for use throughout durations of high demand also, load-leveling helps get rid of the require for expensive peaking power plants and also helps minimize the cost of generators over more hrs of operation.

Rechargeable Battery Construction

Similar to all batteries, rechargeable batteries consist of an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte. Throughout charging, the anode product is oxidized, developing electrons, and the cathode is reduced, consuming electrons.


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Charging a battery: Diagram of charging a battery.


These electrons constitute the present flow in the outside circuit. The electrolyte may serve as a straightforward buffer for inner ion circulation in between the electrodes, as in lithium-ion and also nickel-cadmium cells, or it may be an active participant in the electrochemical reaction, as in lead-acid cells.

Types of Rechargeable Batteries

Several different combicountries of chemicals are generally used in rechargeable batteries. Different types include lead-acid, nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel-steel hydride (NiMH), lithium-ion (Li-ion), lithium-ion polymer (LiPo), and also rechargeable alkaline batteries.

Lead-Acid Batteries

Lead-acid batteries, created in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. Their capacity to supply high-surge currental fees means that the cells keep a fairly large power-to-weight ratio. These features, along with their low price, make them attrenergetic for use in motor vehicles, which call for high currents.

Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries

A nickel-steel hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH or Ni-MH, is very comparable to the nickel-cadmium cell (NiCd). NiMH batteries use positive electrodes of nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH), as does the NiCd, but the negative electrodes usage a hydrogen-absorbing alloy rather of cadmium. A NiMH battery can have actually 2 to 3 times the capacity of a NiCd battery of tantamount size, and also its power thickness philosophies that of a lithium-ion cell.

Lithium-Ion Batteries

The lithium-ion battery is a household of rechargeable batteries in which lithium ions relocate from the negative electrode to the positive electrode throughout discharge, and also ago when charging. The negative electrode of a conventional lithium-ion cell is made from carbon. The positive electrode is a steel oxide, and the electrolyte is a lithium salt in an organic solvent. They are among the many well-known kinds of rechargeable battery for portable electronic devices, through one of the finest power densities and also just a sluggish loss of charge as soon as not in use. Lithium ion batteries are more expensive than NiCd batteries however run over a broader temperature range while being smaller sized and also lighter. They are fragile and hence require a protective circuit to limit optimal volteras.

Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

Lithium-ion polymer (LiPo) batteries are commonly written of a number of the same second cells in parallel to increase the discharge-existing capcapacity. They are frequently available in series “packs” to increase the total easily accessible voltage. Their major difference from lithium-ion batteries is that their lithium salt electrolyte is not hosted in an organic solvent. Instead, it is in a solid polymer composite, such as polyethylene oxide or polyacrylonitrile. The advantages of LiPo over the lithium-ion architecture include potentially lower expense of manufacture, adaptcapability to a broad array of packaging forms, relicapacity, and also ruggedness. Their significant disbenefit is that they organize much less charge.

Alkaline Batteries

Tbelow are likewise rechargeable forms of alkaline batteries, which are a kind of main battery dependent upon the reaction in between zinc (Zn) and also manganese dioxide (MnO2). They are made fully charged and also have actually the capability to lug their charge for years, much longer than a lot of NiCd and NiMH batteries, which self-discharge. Rechargeable alkaline batteries can additionally have actually a high recharging efficiency and have much less environmental impact than disposable cells.


The Lithium-Ion Battery

Lithium-ion batteries are rechargeable batteries typically used in consumer electronics; they rely on Li+ migration.


Learning Objectives

Discuss the chemical changes that take place in a lithium-ion battery during charge and also discharge


Key Takeaways

Key PointsSuperior energy densities, no memory impact, and only a sluggish loss of charge as soon as not in use make lithium- ion batteries prevalent for use in customer electronic devices, armed forces, electrical auto, and also aerospace applications.The anode is typically a lithium-containing compound and also the cathode is commonly a carbon-containing compound.The discharging reactivity depends on the lithium ion from the electrolyte being extracted from the cathode and also moved to the anode, while the oppowebsite is true in the charging reactivity.Key Termsanode: The electrode of an electrochemical cell at which oxidation occurs.cathode: The electrode of an electrochemical cell at which reduction occurs.electrolyte: A substance that, in solution or once molten, ionizes and also conducts electrical power.

Lithium-ion batteries (Li-ion batteries, or LIBs) are a household of rechargeable batteries in which lithium ions relocate from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge. The ions follow the reverse path as soon as the battery is charging. Li-ion batteries use a lithium compound as the electrode product.

Uses for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lithium-ion batteries are widespread in consumer electronic devices. They are among the many well-known forms of rechargeable battery for portable electronics bereason they have actually among the ideal power densities and just a slow loss of charge as soon as not in usage.


Lapoptimal lithium-ion battery: The lithium-ion battery is excellent for use in portable electronics, including laptop computers.


Beyond the area of consumer electronics, LIBs are also flourishing in popularity for army, electric vehicle, and also aeroroom applications. Research is yielding a stream of renovations to traditional LIB technology, focusing on energy thickness, durcapability, cost, and also security.

Types of Lithium-Ion Batteries

Chemistry, performance, cost, and also safety features vary with the kind of LIB. Handorganized electronic devices mainly use LIBs based on lithium cobalt oxide (LCO), which market high power thickness however have famous safety concerns, particularly as soon as damaged. Lithium iron phosphate (LFP), lithium manganese oxide (LMO), and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LiNMC) batteries sell reduced energy thickness but much longer lives and innate safety and security. These chemical compositions, or chemistries, are being widely used for powering electric devices and clinical devices.

Charging and also Discharging

The three participants in the electrochemical reactions in a lithium-ion battery are the anode, the cathode, and also the electrolyte. Both the anode, which is a lithium-containing compound, and the cathode, which is a carbon-containing compound, are materials right into which lithium ions can move. The electrolyte is a lithium salt in an organic solvent. When a lithium-based cell is discharging, the positive lithium ion is extracted from the cathode and also put into the anode, releasing stored power in the procedure. When the cell is charging, the reverse occurs.

Materials for Cathodes and Anodes

The many commercially renowned cathode product is graphite. The anode is mostly one of three materials: a layered oxide (such as lithium cobalt oxide), a polyanion (such as lithium iron phosphate), or a spinel (such as lithium manganese oxide). The electrolyte is commonly a mixture of organic carbonates, such as ethylene carbonate or diethyl carbonate, containing complexes of lithium ions.

In a lithium-ion battery, the lithium ions are transported to and from the cathode or anode. The change metal, cobalt (Co), oxidizes from Co3+ to Co4+ in the time of charging and reduces from Co4+ to Co3+ during discharge.


Fuel Cells

Fuel cells are a compelling different to batteries, however they are still in the at an early stage stperiods of advancement.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsA fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from fuel right into electrical power by means of a chemical reactivity via oxygen or one more oxidizing agent.Batteries work-related in a closed device, while fuel cells need their reactants to be repleniburned.Using hydrogen as the major fuel source in fuel cells has numerous pros and cons that have preserved it controversial for mainstream usage.Fuel cells are comprised of 3 adjacent segments: the anode, the electrolyte, and also the cathode.Key Termsanode: The electrode of an electrochemical cell at which oxidation occurs.fuel cell: A tool that converts the chemical energy from a fuel right into electrical power via a chemical reactivity via oxygen or one more oxidizing agent.cathode: The electrode of an electrochemical cell at which reduction occurs.battery: A tool that produces electrical energy by a chemical reaction in between two substances.

Introduction and also History

A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from fuel right into electricity using a chemical reactivity with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Hydrogen is the most prevalent fuel, but hydrocarbons such as herbal gas and also alcohols are occasionally used. Fuel cells are various from batteries in that they call for a consistent resource of fuel and also oxygen to run, but they have the right to create electrical power continually for as lengthy as these inputs are provided. The development of miniature fuel cells can provide a cheap, reliable, and reusable alternative to batteries.

William Grove developed the first crude fuel cells in 1839. The first commercial usage of fuel cells was in NASA room programs to generate power for probes, satellites, and space capsules. Currently, fuel cells are provided for primary and backup power for commercial, industrial, and residential structures and also in remote or inaccessible areas. They are supplied to power fuel-cell vehicles, including automobiles, boffers, forklifts, airplanes, boats, motorcycles, and also submarines.

Fuel Cell Structure and Function

There are many type of types of fuel cells, however they all consist of an anode, which is the negative side, a cathode, which is the positive side, and also an electrolyte, which allows charges to relocate in between the two sides of the fuel cell.


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Fuel cell: Fuel cells convert the chemical energy from fuel into electrical energy using a chemical reactivity with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. However before, utilizing hydrogen as the major fuel source in fuel cells has actually numerous pros and cons that have maintained it controversial for mainstream usage.


Electrons are drawn from the anode to the cathode through an external circuit, developing direct-existing electrical power. Fuel cells are classified by the electrolyte they use, which is the main distinction among the assorted kinds of fuel cells. Individual fuel cells produce fairly small electrical potentials, about 0.7 volts, so cells are “stacked,” or inserted in series, to rise the voltage. In addition to electrical power, fuel cells develop water, warm, and, relying on the fuel resource, incredibly little amounts of nitrogen dioxide and also various other eobjectives. The power efficiency of a fuel cell is generally between 40-60 percent; it have the right to reach 85 percent if waste warm is captured for usage.

Regardless of the selection of fuel cell types, they all occupational in the exact same basic manner. Two chemical reactions occur at the interdeals with of the three various segments. The net outcome of the two reactions is that fuel is consumed, water or carbon dioxide is created, and an electrical existing is developed, which deserve to be offered to power electrical devices, usually described as the “load.”

At the anode, a catalyst oxidizes the fuel, normally hydrogen, turning the fuel right into a positively charged ion and a negatively charged electron. The electrolyte is a substance that is specifically designed so that ions can pass with it but electrons cannot. The freed electrons take a trip through a wire, creating the electric existing. The ions travel through the electrolyte to the cathode. Tbelow, the ions are reunited via the electrons, and also the 2 react with a 3rd chemical, normally oxygen, to produce water or carbon dioxide.

The Pros and Cons of Fuel Cells

The usage of hydrogen fuel cells is controversial in some applications. First of all, given that the power used to develop the hydrogen is similar to the energy in the hydrogen, it is ineffective, and also therefore expensive. If typical power plants were used to develop the hydrogen tbelow would certainly be, at finest, no positive readjust in current pollution rates. Other forms of fuel cells don’t face this problem. For example, organic fuel cells take glucose and methanol from food scraps and convert them into hydrogen and food for the bacteria that break it dvery own.

There are several benefits to hydrogen fuel cells, though. If the electrical energy developed by clean, renewable energy sources, such as solar and also wind power, is offered to produce hydrogen, the power have the right to be stored even more conveniently than in large battery complexes.

Tright here are useful difficulties to be get rid of also. Although the use of fuel cells for consumer assets is probable in the close to future, most current deindicators won’t job-related if oriented upside-down. Furthermore, existing fuel cells cannot be scacaused the little size essential for portable devices such as cell phones. Current deindicators also need venting and also therefore cannot operate under water. They may not be usable on aircraft because of the hazard of fuel leaks through the vents. Finally, modern technologies for safe refueling of consumer fuel cells are not yet in place.

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Fuel cell in a car: Fuel cells are a potential power resource for cars that perform not run on gasoline. However, although fuel cells sell clean, renewable energy, there are numerous obstacles to its widespcheck out adoption.