The Sun"s Layers and also TemperaturesThe sun is a huge ball the gas. Unlike Earth, it doesn"t have actually a solid surface where we could stand——even if it to be cool enough. And, just like a golf ball, the sun is made up of layers: a core, a surface, and also surrounding atmospheric layers, every of which have their own layers.

Diagram of the Sun

Core: the temperature at the very center the the sunlight is around 27 million levels Farenheit (F). The temperature cools down through the radiative and also convective layers that comprise the Sun"s core. Surface: the photosphere great is the many visible to the human being eye. Right here the temperature is only around 10,000 levels F. This layer, which looks favor a shining disk, sends light and heat come Earth. The photosphere"s external edge seems to be less bright, a condition called "limb darkening." the is on this limb the we check out sunspots, dark blemishes top top the Sun"s surface. Seen through a telescope, the photosphere has actually a granular appearance. This granules are little convection cells——about 1000 kilometers (just over 621 miles) across——that carry the power from listed below the obvious surface. Granules covering the entire Sun other than for those locations covered through sunspots.Atmosphere: the chromosphere is the innermost atmospheric layer. The is just over the photosphere. Right here the temperature begins to increase again, to around 36,000 levels F. Over the chromosphere is the transistion layer, wherein temperatures rise 6000 to over half-a-million degrees. Gases in this great shine in the ultraviolet and also extreme ultraviolet wavelengths. The outermost atmospheric class is the corona, which gets yes, really hot, practically 2,000,000 degrees F. This is wherein the solar wind begins. These layers have the right to only be seen during complete solar eclipses. Right here is where we check out towering masses that luminous gas, called filaments or prominences, top top the solar limb against the dark sky.While the center of the Sun"s core can obtain as hot as 30 million levels F, its external layers cool down. The photosphere, i beg your pardon is outside the core, is the coolest layer. This is together expected, because normally warm passes outwardly from warm to cold. However, the Sun"s outermost atmospheric layer is lot hotter 보다 its surface ar layer! Astronomers have perplexed over this enigma for an ext than 50 years. What is keep going on the Sun?Scientists quiet aren"t rather sure. Lock do know that within the innermost core, power is created by nuclear reactions. The energy generated and stored in the main point diffuses (spreads) external by radiation (mostly gamma-rays and x-rays) right into the following layer, the photosphere——the many visible surface of the Sun——and beyond. Here, gaseous layers adjust from being totally opaque (blocking light) to a radiative (particle/wave energy) problem to being transparent (admitting light). In the chromosphere, the rising heat reasons hydrogen to give off the reddish light viewed in the prominences during solar eclipses. And, the corona, i beg your pardon extends for countless miles past the relatively cool photosphere, is even hotter.

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While there space differing opinions on the causes of the corona"s extreme temperatures, most scientists currently attribute it to the interaction of the Sun"s magnetic field lines. Back