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You are watching: Which change occurred as a result of the punic wars


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You may have heard of D-Day, the battle of Hastings, and also Waterloo, however do you understand their historic significance? Embark top top a historical journey of war in this quiz.
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The proximate reason of the very first outbreak was a dilemm in the city of Messana (Messina), commanding the straits between Italy and Sicily. The Mamertini, a tape of Campanian mercenaries, had forcibly developed themselves within the town and were being hard pressed in 264 by Hieron II of Syracuse. The Mamertini appealed to both Rome and also Carthage, and also the Carthaginians, arriving first, occupied Messana and also effected a reconciliation with Hieron. The roman inn commander, nevertheless, persisted in cram troops right into the city, and, by seizing the Carthaginian admiral throughout a parley, induced him to withdraw. This aggression furious war through Carthage and Syracuse.

Operations started with a joint strike upon Messana, i beg your pardon the Romans quickly repelled. In 263 the Romans advanced with a significant force into Hieron’s territory and also induced the to seek peace and alliance through them. Castle besieged and also captured the Carthaginian basic at Agrigentum in 262 however made little impression upon the Carthaginian fortresses in the west that the island and upon the communities of the interior.


In 260 the Romans developed their first large fleet of typical battleships. At Mylae (Milazzo), turn off the north Sicilian coast, your admiral Gaius Duilius beat a Carthaginian squadron of superior maneuvering capacity by grappling and also boarding. This left Rome free to soil a force on Corsica (259) and also expel the Carthaginians yet did not suffice to loosen their master on Sicily. A large Roman fleet cruised out in 256, repelled the whole Carthaginian fleet turn off Cape Ecnomus (near modern-day Licata) and also established a fortified camp on African floor at Clypea (Kélibia in Tunisia). The Carthaginians, whose citizen levy was utterly disorganized, could neither save the field versus the invaders nor prevent their topics from revolting. After one project they were all set to sue because that peace, but the terms which the roman commander Marcus Atilius Regulus readily available were intolerably harsh. Appropriately they equipped a new army in which, through the advice the a Greek captain of mercenaries called Xanthippus, cavalry and elephants formed the strongest arm. In 255, under Xanthippus’ command, they available battle to Regulus, who had actually taken up place with an inadequate force near Tunis, outmaneuvered him, and destroyed the mass of his army. A 2nd Roman fleet, i beg your pardon subsequently got to Africa after beating the complete Carthaginian fleet off Cape Hermaeum (Sharīk Peninsula), withdrew all the remaining troops.


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Roman battle galley
A Roman battle galley v infantry on deck; in the Vatican Museums.
Alinari/Art Resource, new York

The Romans now directed their efforts once more against Sicily. In 254 they recorded the necessary fortress of Panormus (Palermo), however when Carthage threw reinforcements right into the island the war again came to a standstill. In 251 or 250 the Roman basic Lucius Caecilius Metellus at critical brought about a pitched fight near Panormus in which the enemy’s force was efficiently crippled. This success was followed by an investment of the chef Punic base at Lilybaeum (Marsala), together with Drepanum (Trapani), by land and sea. The besiegers met with a gallant resistance and also in 249 were compelled to withdraw by the loss of your fleet in a surprise strike upon Drepanum, in which the admiral Publius Claudius Pulcher was repulsed v a loss of 93 ships. When this was the Romans’ just naval loss in the war, their fleet had actually suffered a series of grievous accident by storm, and also now it to be so lessened that the strike upon Sicily had to be suspended. At the same time, the Carthaginians, that felt no less severely the financial strain of the prolonged struggle, lessened their forces and made no effort to provide a counterattack. The only noteworthy attribute of the ensuing campaigns is the sent guerrilla battle waged by a brand-new Carthaginian commander, Hamilcar Barca, native his strong positions top top Mt. Ercte (247–244) and also Mt. Eryx (modern Erice) (244–242) in west Sicily, by which he effectually screened Lilybaeum from any attempt on that by the roman land army.

In 242 Rome resumed operations at sea. Through a magnificent initiative on the part of exclusive citizens a fleet that 200 warships was equipped and also sent out to renew the blockade of Lilybaeum. The Carthaginians hastily collected a relief force, however in a battle fought off the Aegates Insulae (Egadi Islands), west that Drepana, their fleet was captured at a disadvantage and also mostly sunk or caught (March 10, 241). This victory, by giving the Romans undisputed command of the sea, rendered specific the ultimate autumn of the Punic strongholds in Sicily. The Carthaginians appropriately opened negotiations and also consented to a peace by which they ceded Sicily and also the Lipari (Eolie) islands to Rome and also paid an indemnity that 3,200 talents.

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The interval in between the very first and 2nd Punic battles (241–218 bce)

The lose of naval dominance not only deprived the Carthaginians of their predominance in the western Mediterranean yet exposed their overseas realm to fragmentation under renewed attacks by Rome. The temper of the Roman human being was quickly made manifest throughout a dispute which damaged out between the Carthaginians and also their discontented mercenaries. A pistol breach the the treaty to be perpetrated when a Roman pressure was sent to accounting Sardinia, whose insurgent garrison had readily available to surrender the island (238). Come the remonstrances that Carthage the Romans responded with a straight declaration the war, and only withheld their assault upon the officially cession the Sardinia and also Corsica and also the payment the a additional indemnity.