Good question! various lines that evidence(mostly indigenous the seismic waves created byearthquakes) imply that the inner core of theEarth is solid. The inner core must also bevery hot, together it is “insulated” by the external coreand the mantle that surround it (the outermostlayer is the crust, but it’s for this reason think contrasted tothe various other layers that it probably doesn’t insulatemuch). If it’s therefore hot, then why is it solid?Basically, the push is therefore high the theiron and nickel (and various other elements) in the corecannot melt. Generally, raising pressureincreases the melt temperature the a solid“phase” (this is not always true). The press atthe border of the inner core is approximately330 gigapascals (GPa; Alfè et al., 1999). That’sabout 3.3 million times the press of theatmosphere at sea level! Under this extremelyhigh-pressure conditions, the core is steady as asolid phase.
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A little much more detail, if you want it: Chemical components can exist as differentphysical “phases”. A familiar instance is water(H2O), which have the right to exists as a solid(ice), fluid (water), or vapor (steam) in ~ or nearthe surface ar of the Earth. Ice, liquid water, andwater vapor room three different “phases” the thesame chemistry “component”. The field of sciencethat describes or predicts whether a product of acertain composition will be solid, liquid, orvapor is known as thermodynamics. A commontool supplied in thermodynamics (and geology) iscalled a pressure-temperature phase diagram, whichshows the “phase” that is predicted to be stableat different pressure and also temperature conditions.
civilization have calculation what a step diagramwould look choose for steel (which comprise most ofthe core, in addition to nickel and maybe additionally carbon)at really high pressures and temperatures. The number that i have contained shows of thesephase diagrams calculate by Alfè et al. (1999)based ~ above thermodynamic properties of iron. Thecurve ~ above the diagram to represent the melt curve,where iron must melt (with increasingtemperature) or solidify (with decreasingtemperature). Notice that at a provided temperature(a vertical heat on the diagram), a solid phase ofiron is stable at high pressures. At 330 Gpa (thepressure in ~ the inner core boundary), the solidiron phase is stable, so the temperature need to beto the left the the curve. Keep in mind that wecan’t do experiments at together high pressures andtemperatures, so it’s difficult to identify exactlywhere this line must be! There’s tho a lotthat we don’t know about the core of the Earth!Maybe girlfriend can help with some of the unansweredquestions part day! referral Alfè, D., Gillan, M.J., and also Price, G.D. (1999).The melting curve of iron in ~ the pressure of theEarth’s core from abdominal initio calculations. Lettersto Nature, 401, pp. 462–464.
The state of material (solid, liquid, gas,plasma) depends on two factors: temperature andpressure. although the temperature in ~ thecenter of the earth is hot enough to revolve rockinto vapor or even plasma ~ above the surface, thepressure is high sufficient to store it hard despitethe heat.
Your question offered to confused me as well. Theanswer lies on 2 factors: temperature andpressure.
You room correct that together we go deeper right into theearth, the hotter it becomes. Intuitively, thatshould average that everything would be melted by thetime us reach the inside core. However we likewise knowthat pressure increases with depth. At part pointthe pressure result \"overrides\" the temperatureeffect. Yes, really high pressure deserve to keep rockstogether, as such keeping castle solid. This iswhat wake up in the within core. It was weird to mewhen I first learned about this, however it explainswhy the inside core continues to be solid regardless of the hightemperature.
I hope i answered her question. Good luck withyour studies!
This is a great question! Indeed, the centerof the earth is topic to an extremely high temperatures,but the is additionally subject to an extremely high pressures.
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In general, products existing at higher pressuresrequire greater temperatures come melt them! friend cansee this if friend look in ~ a Pressure/Temperaturephase chart for some chemical (e.g. Carbon,which comprises graphene and also diamonds!). Look at forthe solid-liquid coexistence curve (the heat thatseparates the solid step from the fluid phase).If we desire to melt a solid, we have to cross thatline, however at higher pressures, we would needhigher temperature to melt the heavy phase into aliquid one.