I'd like to ask, what would be of Anatolia (Present-day Turkey) today if the Byzantines survived the Ottoman conquests? Considering that by the 1400's the Byzantine Empire was in fragments, with its successor state Empire of Trebizond hanging out there by the Black Sea. Since Constantinople was conquered in 1453, it made a huge blow against Christendom, paving a way for the Ottomans to push further into Europe. Many historians consider the Conquest of Constantinople the end of the Middle Ages/High Middle Ages. If the Byzantine Empire had survived or even recovered how would it actually change the region? So how would it change the course of history to this day for example?
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The Byzantine Empire had already reached the end of its days by the time the Ottomans showed up. The Third Crusades had already destroyed the power of the Byzantines. The only reason they held out for so long was due in part to the walls of Constantinople being so thick.Even if the Ottomans failed to capture Constantinople, it would at some point either become dependent on the Ottomans, or surrender to the sultan after being starved out by the sultan.
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If the Byzantine culture experienced a revival, Constantinople would have probably only become at most a trading city state like Venice or Milan, not that any of this would be very likely.
So basically, the question is "what would happen if the Roman (Byzantine) Empire beat the Ottomans and kept their land?" This didn't happen in real history for a good reason: The Romans at this point were a small empire surrounded by bigger ones who wanted a piece of the pie. If they somehow managed to get a genius god-emperor who tore ottoman armies apart and wrecked balkan invasions it would have huge effects on history, because it basically removes the ottoman empire, an extremely important part of world history. So let's say the Romans rise again under a new Alexander the Great, wiping out the ottomans and pushing back the balkan peoples. The Imperium is reestablished over large parts of anatolia and the balkans, now bordering on the black sheep turks and the mamluks, two extremely tough enemies. Who knows if the Romans can beat them. Regardless, Europe is not under threat from a powerful and expansionist islamic power. This was one of the defining features of European politics in the 1500s, and it changes quite a bit. For one, the empire of Charles V no longer has the Ottomans to stop their Mediterranean expansion, leaving the possibility open that Spain and the Holy Roman Empire would collectively be powerful enough to overrun France in the 1550s instead of being ground into a stalemate. This means that Europe's tradition of having a bunch of competing states of roughly equal power would come to a grinding halt as Charles V holds sway over all of Spain, France, Italy, and Germany. With the power of those realms, it's possible that all of Europe becomes subject to Charles and his Hasburg descendents.