Crater Lake Caldera
*

Crater Lake Caldera: A satellite see of Crater Lake, one of the world"s most renowned calderas. Crater Lake formed about 7700 years back when a substantial volcanic eruption of mount Mazama cleared a large magma chamber listed below the mountain. The broken rock above the magma chamber collapsed to produce a substantial crater over 6 miles across. Century of rain and also snow fill the caldera, producing Crater Lake. With a depth of 1949 feet (594 meters), Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the united States and the ninth-deepest lake in the world. The image over was created using Landsat GeoCover data indigenous NASA. Enlarge image.

You are watching: What geologic process is related to caldera formation


What is a Caldera?

Calderas are some of the most spectacular attributes on Earth. They are big volcanic craters that form by two various methods: 1) one explosive volcanic eruption; or, 2) fallen of surface ar rock into an north magma chamber.

The accompanying photo is a satellite see of among the most famed calderas - Crater Lake in Oregon. Crater Lake to be formed around 7700 years earlier when an enormous volcanic eruption of mountain Mazama emptied a large magma chamber below the mountain. The broken rock above the magma chamber collapsed to develop a substantial craterover six miles across. Century of rain and snow to fill the caldera, creating Crater Lake. With a depth that 1949 feet (594 meters), Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the unified States and the ninth-deepest lake in the world.


Collapse Calderas

Collapse calderas form when a big magma room is cleared by a volcanic eruption or by subsurface magma movement. The unsupported rock that forms the roof of the magma chamber then collapses to form a large crater. Crater Lake and also many other calderas space thought to have developed by this process.

The four-step illustration listed below explains exactly how the Crater Lake caldera is believed to have actually formed. The video on this page shows a table-top design of caldera formation. This would be terrific activity because that teachers to do with their students, or they have the right to simply present the video using computer projection.


Caldera demonstration: This video shows a teaching task that plainly demonstrates exactly how a caldera is formed. It deserve to be complicated to explain or attract how a caldera forms. This table-top model is a an excellent demonstration. Teachers deserve to do this task with their students, or simply show the video in course using computer system projection. Dina Venezky and Stephen Wessells, 2010, Caldera demonstrate Model: U.S. Geological inspection Open-File Report 2010-1173.


What causes Explosive Eruptions at Kilauea?
*

Explosive Eruptions in ~ Kilauea: countless of Kilauea"s pre-1924 explosive eruptions that produced far-ranging ash deposits most likely happened as soon as the volcano"s summit crater was so deep that its floor was below the water table, letting groundwater seep in to form a lake. Whenever magma erupted into the lake water, violent explosions of vapor and volcanic gases resulted, fragmenting the magma right into tiny ash particles and driving fast-moving, incredibly hot ash-laden heavy steam clouds (pyroclastic surges) out of the crater. Image and also caption by USGS.


Steps in the formation of Crater Lake Caldera
*

Eruptions of ash and pumice: The cataclysmic eruption started from a vent top top the northeast side of the volcano as a towering column of ash, v pyroclastic flows spreading to the northeast. Caldera collapse: As more magma was erupted, cracks opened up up around the summit, which started to collapse. Fountains the pumice and ash surrounding the collapsing summit, and also pyroclastic flows raced down all political parties of the volcano. Steam explosions: as soon as the dust had actually settled, the brand-new caldera to be 5 mile (8 km) in diameter and also 1 mile (1.6 km) deep. Groundwater interacted with warm deposits, resulting in explosions of heavy steam and ash. Today: In the first couple of hundred years after the cataclysmic eruption, renewed eruptions built Wizard Island, Merriam Cone, and also the central platform. Water filled the brand-new caldera to type the deepest lake in the unified States. Number modified from diagrams on ago of 1988 USGS map "Crater Lake nationwide Park and Vicinity, Oregon." Illustration and also caption by the United states Geological Survey.


Caldera demonstration: This video shows a teaching activity that clearly demonstrates just how a caldera is formed. It deserve to be complicated to define or attract how a caldera forms. This table-top design is a an excellent demonstration. Teachers have the right to do this activity with your students, or simply present the video clip in class using computer projection. Dina Venezky and Stephen Wessells, 2010, Caldera demonstrate Model: U.S. Geological inspection Open-File Report 2010-1173.


Explosive Calderas

Explosive calderas are developed when very huge magma chambers filled through silica-rich melt and also abundant gas move upwards indigenous depth. Silica-rich magmas have actually a really high viscosity that enables them to hold gas balloon under an extremely high pressures. Together they increase to the surface, the palliation of pressure reasons the gases to expand. As soon as break-through wake up the result can be an massive explosion i m sorry blasts away large volumes of rock to kind the caldera. Several of these blasts eject plenty of cubic kilometers of magma and rock.


Yellowstone Caldera Chain
*

Yellowstone Caldera Chain: The existing caldera in ~ Yellowstone is the many recent in a series of eruptions that span millions that years. The north American key is relocating west over a stationary warm spot. Together the bowl moves, the hotspot produces an huge eruption (and a big caldera) every couple of million years. This has actually produced local basaltic lavas and also a chain of rhyolitic caldera teams (circles, with ages in numerous years) follow me the track of the Yellowstone warm spot. Image by USGS.


The Yellowstone Supervolcano & Caldera Chain

Yellowstone nationwide Park is world-famous because that its geysers and also hot springs. Those thermal features are easy-to-observe evidence of an energetic magma system beneath the Park. This magma device has created some of the largest volcanic eruptions in Earth"s history - eruptions so huge that they have actually been called "supervolcanoes." one of these eruptions created a caldera about 50 miles throughout that underlies most of Yellowstone nationwide Park.


The Toba Explosive Eruption
*

Toba Caldera: Landsat GeoCover image of the caldera created by the Toba Supervolcano. That is currently the world"s biggest volcanic lake. The image above was developed using Landsat GeoCover data native NASA. Enlarge image.


The Toba Supervolcano

About 73,000 year ago, the eruption of Toba ~ above the island that Sumatra, Indonesia developed what is thought to be the largest explosive eruption on earth in at the very least the previous 25 million years.

The Toba blast is believed to have actually deforested much of central India - about 3000 miles from the eruption site. The blast is thought to have ejected around 800 cubic kilometers that ash right into the atmosphere, producing a crater that is 100 kilometers long and 35 kilometers wide. The crater is currently the website of the world"s largest volcanic lake.


Compare Explosive Eruptions
*

Volcanic Explosivity is a an approach of comparing the dimension of explosive volcanic eruptions by estimating the volume of product ejected. Our write-up on the "Volcanic Explosivity Index" offers a graphic comparison that the Crater Lake, Toba, and also Yellowstone supervolcanoes.


Calderas on other Planets
*

Calderas on other Planets: complex caldera at the summit of Olympus Mons Volcano - a shield volcano the is the tallest function on Mars. This caldera is very comparable to the caldera facility at the summit the Earth"s largest shield volcano - Mauna Loa Volcano top top the island of Hawaii. Image by NASA.


Snow-Covered Calderas ~ above Hawaii
*

Mauna Loa Volcano: Snow-covered Moku"aweoweo Caldera atop Mauna Loa shield volcano (Mauna Kea in background) top top the island that Hawaii. The caldera is 3 x 5 kilometres across, 183 m deep, and is approximated to have collapsed in between 600-750 years ago. Several pit craters along the upper southwest rift zone the Mauna Loa (lower right) likewise formed by fallen of the ground. Image and caption through USGS. Enlarge image.


Aniakchak Caldera, Alaska
*

Aniakchak Caldera in Alaska: Aniakchak Caldera, located in the Aleutian selection of Alaska, formed throughout an huge explosive eruption the expelled more than 50 km3 of magma around 3,450 years ago. The caldera is 10 kilometers in diameter and also 500-1,000 meters deep. Succeeding eruptions formed domes, cinder cones, and explosion pits ~ above the caldera floor. Enlarge image.


More Volcanoes
*
Where space the Canary Islands?
*
Mount St. Helens - 30 Years
*
Largest Volcano
*
Mount Etna
*
Volcanic Explosivity
*
Yellowstone Supervolcano
*
Cinder Cones
*
Mount Rainier
*

*
Rocks: Galleries the igneous, sedimentary and also metamorphic rock photos with descriptions.
*
Minerals: Information about ore minerals, gem materials and also rock-forming minerals.
*
Volcanoes: Articles about volcanoes, volcano hazards and also eruptions past and also present.
*
Gemstones: colorful images and also articles about diamonds and colored stones.
*
General derekwadsworth.com: Articles around geysers, maars, deltas, rifts, salt domes, water, and much more!
*
derekwadsworth.com Store: Hammers, field bags, hand lenses, maps, books, hardness picks, gold pans.
*
Earth scientific research Records: highest possible mountain, deepest lake, best tsunami and more.

See more: What Does Hiding A Post On Reddit Do, What Does The Hide Button Do On Reddit

*
Diamonds: Learn about the nature of diamond, its plenty of uses, and also diamond discoveries.

*