Disaccharides are comprised of 2 monosaccharides and also are commonly uncovered in fruits and also vegetables, consisting of sugar beets and also sugar cane, and as lactose in dairy commodities.

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From: The New Public Health (Third Edition), 2014

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Disaccharides consist of 2 monosaccharide devices, linked by glycosidic bonds in the α or β orientation. The many necessary disaccharides are sucincreased, lactose, and maltose. Sucrose consists of a molecule of α-glucose and also a molecule of β-fructose linked together (Figure 2A). Lactose is found in milk and dairy commodities and consists of a molecule of galactose attached to a glucose molecule by a β-1,4glycosidic bond (Figure 2B). Maltose is mostly developed by partial hydrolysis of starch and is composed of 2 glucose systems linked through an α-1,4glycosidic bond (Figure 2C). Some nutritionally important disaccharides and their significance are outlined in Table 2.


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ClassSpeciesSignificance
DisaccharideSucroseConstituent of fruits, vegetables, and also sweetener
LactoseConstituent of milk and dairy products
Maltose, IsomaltoseConstituent of starch
TrehaloseFood additive, constituent of mushrooms
LactuloseLactose derivative, laxative
Disaccharide alcoholsMaltitolConstituent of starch, sweetner
LactitolConstituent of lactose, sweetener

C. Stylianopoulos, in Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition (Third Edition), 2013

Acid

Disaccharides and oligosaccharides in mild acidic problems are hydrolyzed into their constituent monosaccharides. The fructofuranosyl linkages of the fructooligosaccharides are quite prone to acid hydrolysis.

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Polysaccharides are also hydrolyzed right into their constituent monosaccharides by acid hydrolysis, yet the conditions necessary for finish hydrolysis depend on the solubility of the polymers. The majority of polysaccharides (e.g., starch) are totally hydrolyzed under weak acid problems. On the contrary, cellulose requires therapy through strong acid for a number of hours prior to hydrolysis, and subsequent heating under weak acidic problems for the completion of the reactivity. The uronans are extremely resistant to finish acid hydrolysis and also mainly produce disaccharides of aldobiuronic acids. Acid hydrolysis of polysaccharides outcomes in considerable losses of their monosaccharide constituents.