Roman viewpoint was greatly borrowed from the Greeks. Cicero (106-43 B.C.) is credited through presenting Greek viewpoint to Rome. Prominent thinkers contained Lucreius (96?-55 B.C.), an Epicurian and the Stoics’ Epictetus (A.D. 60? -130?) and Marcus Aurelius (121-180).

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Marcus Aurelius

The late first century B.C. and also the initially century A.D. was the Golden Period of Roguy literature, rhetoric and ideology. Great Roman well known poets included the naughty Catuluus, the romantics Tibullus and also Propertius, the epic-maker Virgil and the love scribe Ovid. The excellent historians and rhetoricians incorporate Horace, Livy, Cicero and also Caesar from the later Republican period and Petronius and also Seneca from the at an early stage Imperial period.

Educated Romans, some say, were more interested in the examine of Greek viewpoint than practicing Roman faith. They studied the nature of the gods and the moral duties of guys. In this means the Greek ideas of viewpoint uncovered their method into Rome. Several of these ideas, choose those of the Stoics, were elevating, and tfinished to preserve the simplicity and strength of the old Roman character. But various other principles, favor those of the Epicureans, appeared to justify a life of pleacertain and luxury.

Marcus Aurelius expressed in his life and also works the highest ideas of Romale approach. The Romans cannot, but, be said to have shown any type of originality in their thoughtful units. These they obtained virtually completely from the Greeks. The two devices which were many famous via them were Epicureanism and also Stoicism. The Epicureans thought that happiness was the good end of life. But the high principle of happiness supported by the Greek thinkers became degraded right into the selfish principle of pleacertain, which can quickly excusage almost any kind of create of indulgence. In Rome we check out this concept of life exercising its affect especially upon the wealthy and also indolent classes. ~

The Stoics, on the various other hand, believed that the end of life was to live according to the highest possible law of our nature. This doctrine tfinished to make strong and also upbest personalities. It might not well have actually a degrading influence; so we uncover some of the noblest males of Rome adhering to its tenets—such males as Cato, Cicero, Seneca, and Marcus Aurelius. The Stoic ideology likewise worked out a good and advantageous influence upon the Roguy jurists, that thought that the regulation of the state should be in harmony through the higher legislation of justice and equity. ~

Websites on Ancient Greece and also Rome: Web Encyclopedia of Philosophy; Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; Web Ancient History Sourcebook: Greece ; Web Ancient History Sourcebook: Hellenistic World ; BBC Ancient Greeks; Canadian Museum of History; Perseus Project - Tufts University; ; ;; British Museum;Illustrated Greek History, Dr. Janice Siegel, Department of Classics, Hampden–Sydney College, Virginia ; The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization ;Oxford Classical Art Research Center: The Beazley Archive ;;Metropolitan Museum of Art; The Old City of Athens;The Internet Classics Archive ; Net Old History Sourcebook: Rome ; Web Old History Sourcebook: Late Antiquity ; Forum Romanum ; “Outlines of Roguy History”; “The Private Life of the Romans”|; BBC Ancient Rome; The Roman Empire in the 1st Century;The Net Classics Archive ;Bryn Mawr Classical Review;De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors;Cambridge Classics External Gatemeans to Humanities Resources; Old Rome resources for students from the Courtenay Middle School Library ;History of prehistoric Rome OpenCourseWare from the University of Notre Dame / ;United Nations of Roma Victrix (UNRV) History

Cicero and also Philosophy



Marcus Tullius Cicero (105-43 B.C.) was a good Roguy statesmale, political and also orator. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh wrote: “As a philosopher, Cicero"s many necessary attribute wregarding make his countrymen acquainted with the primary schools of Greek thought. Much of this writing is thus of second interest to us in compariboy through his originals, yet in the fields of religious theory and also of the application of viewpoint to life he made necessary first-hand also contributions. From these functions has been selected the following treatise, On Friendship, which has verified of many irreversible and also widespcheck out interemainder to posterity, and which offers a clear impression of the way in which a high-minded Roguy believed about some of the main troubles of huguy life.”

Cicero created in Letter XVIII: To M. Porcius Cato (at Rome) Cilicia, January, 50 B.C.: “I have only one last resource - philosophy: and to make her plead for me, as though I questioned the efficacy of a mere request: viewpoint, the finest friend I have ever had actually in all my life, the greatest gift which has been bestowed by the gods upon mantype. Yes! this common sympathy in tastes and studies - our inseparable devotion and also attachment to which from boyhood have actually led to us to become nearly distinct examples of guys bringing that true and also primitive ideology (which some regard as just the employment of leisure and idleness) down to the forum, the council chamber, and also the exceptionally camp itself pleads the reason of my glory via you: and I perform not think a Cato deserve to, through a great conscience, say her nay. Wherefore I would certainly have you convince yourself that, if my despatch is made the ground of paying me this compliment via your concurrence, I shall consider that the dearemainder wish of my heart has actually been fulfilled owing at once to your influence and also to your friendship.

In “On Old Period, Part I,” Cicero wrote: “For I recognize how well - ordered and equable your mind is, and am totally mindful that it was not a surname alone which you carried house with you from Athens, however its culture and also great feeling. And yet I have an idea that you are at times stirred to the heart by the very same scenarios as myself. To console you for these is a more significant issue, and also must be put off to one more time. For the current I have actually reresolved to dedicate to you an essay on Old Era. For from the burden of impending or at leastern advancing age, widespread to us both, I would carry out somepoint to relieve us both: though regarding yourself I am totally mindful that you assistance and also will support it, as you execute every little thing else, through calmness and viewpoint. But directly I refixed to write on old age, you at when arisen to me as deserving a gift of which both of us could take advantage. To myself, indeed, the complace of this book has been so delightful that it has not just wiped away all the disagreeables of old age, but has also made it luxurious and delightful also. Never, therefore, have the right to ideology be pelevated as highly as it deserves, considering that its faithful disciple is able to spfinish every duration of his life with unruffled feelings. However, on other topics I have spoken at huge, and shall regularly stop again: this book which I herewith send you is on Old Era. I have put the totality discourse not, as Alisto of Cos did, in the mouth of Tithonus - for a mere fable would have lacked conviction - yet in that of Marcus Cato when he was an old man, to offer my essay higher weight. I recurrent Laelius and also Scipio at his residence expushing surprise at his carrying his years so lightly, and also Cato answering them. If he shall seem to shew rather even more discovering in this discourse than he mainly did in his own books, put it dvery own to the Greek literary works of which it is known that he became an eager student in his old age. But what need of more? Cato"s own words will certainly at once describe all I feel around old age.

Seneca and His Suicide at Nero’s Command also



Lucius Annaeus Seneca (4 B.C." 65 AD) offered as Nero"s tutor and was his friend and confidant of Nero. He overcame Nero"s court till he was suspected by Nero of plotting versus him and also was required to commit suicide at Nero"s command also. Seneca wrote about the pursuit of the well-being of the soul and also made many kind of monitorings about Roman history, eincredibly day life and also politics that have actually made their method to us this particular day.

George Long wrote: Seneca “remained in a sense a Stoic and he has said many kind of excellent points in a really fine method. Tbelow is a judgment of Gellius (XII. 2) on Seneca, or quite a statement of what some people assumed of his approach, and it is not favourable. His works and also his life have to be taken together.”

On “The Death of Seneca in A.D. 65, Tacitus composed in Annals 15:64: “Then followed the destruction of Annaeus Seneca, a one-of-a-kind joy to the emperor, not because he had convicted him of the conspiracy, but anxious to attain through the sword what poiboy had fairesulted in execute. It was, in fact, Natalis alone who divulged Seneca"s name, to this degree, that he had been sent out to Seneca when ailing, to view him and also remonstrate via him for excluding Piso from his visibility, once it would certainly have been much better to have retained up their friendship by familiar intercourse; that Seneca"s reply was that mutual conversations and frequent interviews were to the advantage of neither, however still that his very own life depended upon Piso"s safety. Gavius Silvanus, tribune of a praetorian cohort, was ordered to report this to Seneca and to ask him whether he recognized what Natalis shelp and also his own answer. Either by opportunity or purposely Seneca had actually went back on that day from Campania, and had stopped at a nation residence 4 miles from Rome. Thither the tribune came next evening, surrounded the home via troops of soldiers, and also then made well-known the emperor"s message to Seneca as he was at dinner via his wife, Pompeia Paulina, and also 2 friends.

“Seneca replied that Natalis had been sent out to him and had actually complained to him in Piso"s name bereason of his refusal to see Piso, upon which he excprovided himself on the ground of failing wellness and also the desire of rest. "He had no factor," he sassist, for "preferring the interemainder of any kind of private citizen to his very own safety and security, and he had actually no natural aptitude for flattery. No one knew this much better than Nero, that had actually oftener skilled Seneca"s complimentary spokenness than his servility." When the tribune reported this answer in the visibility of Poppaea and also Tigellinus, the emperor"s a lot of confidential advisers in his moments of rage, he asked whether Seneca was meditating suicide. Upon this the tribune asserted that he saw no indicators of are afraid, and also regarded no sadness in his words or in his looks. He was as necessary ordered to go ago and to announce sentence of death. Fabius Rusticus tells us that he did not rerotate the means he came, yet went out of his course to Faenius, the commander of the guard, and having actually defined to him the emperor"s orders, and also asked whether he wregarding obey them, was by him admoniburned to lug them out, for a fatal spell of cowardice was on them all. For this extremely Silvanus was among the conspirators, and also he was currently abetting the crimes which he had actually unified with them to avenge. But he spared himself the anguish of a word or of a look, and also just sent in to Seneca among his centurions, who wregarding announce to him his last doom.

“Seneca, rather unrelocated, asked for tablets on which to inscribe his will, and also, on the centurion"s refusal, turned to his friends, proexperimentation that as he was forbidden to refairly them, he bequeathed to them the only, yet still the noblest possession yet continuing to be to him, the pattern of his life, which, if they remembered, they would win a name for ethical worth and steadfast friendship. At the very same time he dubbed them earlier from their tears to manly resolution, now via friendly talk, and currently via the sterner language of rebuke. "Wbelow," he asked aacquire and also aobtain, "are your maxims of philosophy, or the preparation of so many kind of years" research versus evils to come? Who knew not Nero"s cruelty? After a mother"s and also a brother"s murder, nothing continues to be but to include the damage of a guardian and a tutor."


Nero and also Seneca

“Having spoken these and favor words, supposed, so to say, for all, he taken on his wife; then softening awhile from the stern resolution of the hour, he begged and also implored her to spare herself the burden of perpetual sorrow, and also, in the contemplation of a life virtuously spent, to endure a husband"s loss via honourable consolations. She claimed, in answer, that she as well had actually decided to die, and also claimed for herself the blow of the executioner. Tright here upon Seneca, not to thwart her noble ambition, from an affection also which would certainly not leave behind him for insult one whom he dearly on loved, replied: "I have actually displayed you means of smoothing life; you like the glory of dying. I will certainly not grudge you such a noble instance. Let the fortitude of so courageous an end be alike in both of us, yet let there be more in your decease to win fame."

“Then by one and the exact same stroke they sundered with a dagger the arteries of their arms. Seneca, as his aged structure, attenuated by frugal diet, permitted the blood to escape however slowly, severed additionally the veins of his legs and also knees. Worn out by cruel anguish, afrhelp too that his sufferings could break his wife"s soul, and also that, as he looked on her tortures, he might himself sink into irresolution, he persuaded her to retire right into another chamber. Even at the last minute his eloquence failed him not; he summoned his secretaries, and dictated a lot to them which, as it has actually been publiburned for all readers in his very own words, I forbear to paraexpression.

“Nero meanwhile, having no individual hatred against Paulina and also not wishing to heighten the odium of his cruelty, forbade her fatality. At the soldiers" prompting, her servants and also freedmales bound up her arms, and also stanched the bleeding, whether via her understanding is cynical. For as the vulgar are ever before prepared to think the worst, tright here were persons who believed that, as lengthy as she dreaded Nero"s relentlessness, she sought the glory of sharing her husband"s fatality, yet that after a time, when an extra soopoint prospect presented itself, she yielded to the charms of life. To this she added a few subsequent years, via a the majority of praise worthy remembrance of her husband also, and also through a countenance and also structure white to a level of pallor which dedetailed a loss of a lot important power.

“Seneca meantime, as the tedious procedure of fatality still lingered on, begged Statius Annaeus, whom he had lengthy esteemed for his faithful friendship and clinical ability, to develop a poikid with which he had some time before offered himself, same drug which extinguimelted the life of those that were condemned by a public sentence of the civilization of Athens. It was lugged to him and also he drank it in vain, chilled as he was throughout his limbs, and also his framework closed against the efficacy of the poikid. At last he gone into a pool of heated water, from which he sprinkled the nearemainder of his slaves, including the exclamation, "I market this liquid as a libation to Jupiter the Deliverer." He was then brought into a bath, through the vapor of which he was suffocated, and also he was burnt without any of the usual funeral rites. So he had directed in a codicil of his will, as soon as even in the elevation of his wide range and also power he was reasoning of his life"s close.”

Romale Stoicism

George Long wrote: “It has been sassist that the Stoic approach first confirmed its genuine value once it passed from Greece to Rome. The doctrines of Zeno and also his followers were well suited to the gravity and also handy great feeling of the Romans; and also even in the Republihave the right to period we have an instance of a guy, M. Cato Uticensis, that lived the life of a Stoic and passed away repetitively via the opinions which he professed. He was a male, states Cicero, that adopted the Stoic approach from conviction; not for the purpose of vain conversation, as most did, however in order to make his life conformable to the Stoic precepts. In the wretched times from the death of Augustus to the murder of Domitian, tbelow was nothing however the Stoic ideology which might console and also assistance the followers of the old faith under royal tyranny and amiddle universal corruption.


“Tright here were also then noble minds that can dare and also endure, continual by a great conscientific research and also an elevated principle of the functions of man"s visibility. Such were Paetus Thrasea, Helvidius Priscus, Cornutus, C. Musonius Rufus,1 and the poets Persius and Juvenal, whose energetic language and manly thoughts might be as instructive to us now as they can have actually been to their contemporaries. Persius died under Nero"s bloody power, yet Juvenal had the excellent fortune to endure the tyrant Domitian and to check out the better times of Nerva, Trajan, and also Hadrian.2 His ideal precepts are derived from the Stoic institution, and also they are applied in his ideal verses by the unrivalled vigour of the Latin language.

“The 2 best expounders of the later Stoical ideology were a Greek slave and a Romale emperor. Epictetus, a Phrygian Greek, was lugged to Rome, we know not how, but he was tbelow the slave and also afterwards the freedman of an unworthy understand, Epaphroditus by name, himself a freeguy and a favourite of Nero. Epictetus may have been a hearer of C. Musonius Rufus, while he was still a slave, but he can hardly have actually been a teacher prior to he was made cost-free. He was among the philosophers whom Domitian"s order baniburned from Rome. He reworn down to Nicopolis in Epirus, and also he might have died there. Like various other good teachers he wrote nothing, and also we are indebted to his grateful pupil Arrian for what we have of Epictetus" discourses. Arrian wrote eight books of the discourses of Epictetus, of which just four reprimary and some pieces. We have actually additionally from Arrian"s hand also the tiny Enchiridion or Manual of the chief precepts of Epictetus. Tright here is an useful commentary on the Enchiridion by Simplicius, who lived during the emperor Justinian.

“Antoninus in his initially book (I. 7), in which he gratecompletely commemorates his obligations to his teachers, claims that he was made acquainted by Junius Rusticus with the discourses of Epictetus, whom he mentions also in other passeras (IV. 41; XI. 34, 36). Without a doubt the doctrines of Epictetus and also Antoninus are the very same, and Epictetus is the best authority for the explacountry of the thoughtful language of Antoninus and the explace of his opinions. But the strategy of the two philosophers is completely different. Epictetus addressed himself to his hearers in a constant discourse and also in a acquainted and basic manner. Antoninus created down his reflections for his very own use just, in brief unconnected paragraphs, which are often obscure.”

Stoic Philosophy

Zeno of Citium (335-263 B.C.) and also the Stoics exalted factor, identified it through virtue, and counseled an ascetic ignore for misfortune. Zeno "preached that wise males need to remain indifferent to the vanities of the transient people." The Stoics gave us the word stoic, meaning: enin the time of pain or hardship without reflecting feelings or complaining.

George Long wrote: “The Stoics made three divisions of philosophy, Physic, Ethic, and also Logic (VIII. 13). This department, we are told by Diogenes, was made by Zeno of Citium, the founder of the Stoic sect, and also by Chrysippus; however these thinkers put the three divisions in the adhering to order: Logic, Physic, Ethic. It shows up, yet, that this division was made before Zeno"s time and acknowledged by Plato, as Cicero remarks (Acad. Post. I. 5). Logic is not synonymous with our term Logic in the narrower sense of that word.

“Cleanthes, a Stoic, subsplit the 3 departments, and made six: Dialectic and also Rhetoric, comprised in Logic; Ethic and Politic; Physic and Theology. This department was merely for useful usage, for all Philosophy is one. Even among the earliest Stoics Logic or Dialectic does not occupy the very same place as in Plato: it is thought about just as an instrument which is to be supplied for the various other departments of Philosophy. An explace of the previously Stoic doctrines and of their adjustments would call for a volume. My object is to explain only the opinions of Antoninus, so far as they can be built up from his book.

“According to the subdivision of Cleanthes Physic and also Theology go together, or the examine of the nature of Things, and also the examine of the nature of the Deity, so much as man have the right to understand also the Deity, and of his federal government of the world. This department or subdepartment is not formally embraced by Antoninus, for, as already observed, there is no method in his book; but it is basically included in it.

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“Cleanthes also connects Ethic and Politic, or the research of the ethics of morals and also the research of the constitution of civil society; and undoubtedly he did well in subseparating Ethic right into two parts, Ethic in the narrower sense and also Politic, for though the two are intimately associated, they are also exceptionally unique, and many type of concerns deserve to just be effectively disputed by very closely observing the difference. Antoninus does not treat of Politic. His subject is Ethic, and Ethic in its handy application to his very own conduct in life as a man and as a governor. His Ethic is established on his doctrines about man"s nature, the Universal Nature, and the relation of eextremely man to everything else. It is therefore intimately and also inseparably linked via Physic or the Nature of Things and also via Theology or the Nature of the Deity. He advises us to research well all the impressions on our minds and also to form a appropriate judgment of them, to make just conclusions, and to inquire right into the definitions of words, and also so far to apply Dialectic, however he has actually no attempt at any explace of Dialectic, and also his philosophy is in substance pucount ethical and also practical. He claims (VIII. 13), "Constantly and also, if it be feasible, on the occasion of eexceptionally impression on the soul, use to it the principles of Physic, of Ethic, and also of Dialectic": which is only another method of informing us to research the impression in eincredibly feasible method. In another passage (III. 11) he claims, "To the aids which have been discussed let this one still be added: make for thyself a definition or description of the object which is presented to thee, so as to view distinctly what sort of a thing it is in its substance, in its nudity, in its finish entirety, and tell thyself its appropriate name, and the names of the points of which it has actually been compounded, and right into which it will be resolved." Such an examicountry implies a usage of Dialectic, which Antoninus accordingly employed as a way in the direction of creating his Physical, Theological, and Ethical principles.