In 1914 the Ottoguy Empire managed 2.4 million sq kilometres of area, including every one of modern Turkey and the majority of of the Center East. The empire was dominated by the Turks but likewise included Arabs, Kurds, Greeks, Armenians and other ethnic minorities. Officially the Ottoman Realm was an Islamic Caliphate ruled by a Sultan, Mehmed V, although it likewise included Christians, Jews and other spiritual minorities. For practically all of the empire’s 600-year presence these non-Muslim topics sustained systematic discrimicountry and also, at times, outright persecution.

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OttomanSipahi cavalryman


In the decade prior to 1914 the empire knowledgeable a collection of political upheavals. The Sultan’s place was lessened to that of a figurehead and power was seized by the so-called ‘Young Turks’– a team of well-educated Turkish armed forces policemans intent on revitalising the empire by presenting modernist recreates. Theoretically these contained finishing main discrimination against non-Muslims, encouraging the education and learning and also emancipation of womales, and raising the jurisdiction of secular legislation courts at the price of Islamic ones. But this procedure had actually mixed outcomes and broke dvery own under the pressures of war, first in Libya and the Balkans (1911–13) and also then versus the Allies (1914–18).


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Galata Bridge, 1800s


In spite of the ambitious agenda of its leaders, in 1914 the Ottoguy Empire– which at its elevation had actually gone beyond its European rivals in riches and power– now lagged behind all the excellent European powers in economic, technical and armed forces capacity. Recreate was likewise undermined by emerging Turkish nationalism. The Young Turks championed not only the concept of Turkish nationalism within the Ottoguy Empire however also ‘pan-Turkic’ ideals– the ‘reunification’ of the ethnically or culturally connected ‘Turkic′ populaces of the Caucasus and also Central Asia under Ottoguy dominion. This stance– and also its explicit elevation of Turkish identity above all others– was at odds via the realities of a multinationwide empire and also offered just to inflame age-old ethnic and also spiritual tensions in between the various Ottoguy subject individuals.

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Ertuğrul Cavalry Regiment


The quest of pan-Turkic aims all yet guaranteedwar via the Russian Realm, which now controlled most of Central Asia and the Caucasus. Far from shying ameans from this prospect, pan-Turkic advocates such as Enver Pasha, the Minister for War, proactively sought out opportunities for the Ottomale Realm to interact in such a problem on favourable terms. During the coming before three centuries the Ottoman and Russian empires had fought more than a dozen sepaprice battles versus each other,via the Ottomans inevitably losinga substantialamount ofregion. Russia’s enattempt into the First World War on the side of the Allies helped to convince vital Turkish leaders such as Enver Pasha to throw in their lot through the Central Powers.