Learning Objectives

The arts of the Italian Renaissance was influential throughout Europe because that centuries.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe Florence institution of painting ended up being the leading style during the Renaissance. Renaissance artworks depicted much more secular subject issue than previous artistic movements.Michelangelo, da Vinci, and Rafael are among the ideal known artist of the High Renaissance.The High Renaissance was complied with by the Mannerist movement, well-known for elongated figures.Key Termsfresco: A kind of wall surface painting in which shade pigments are combined with water and also applied come wet plaster. As the plaster and also pigments dry, lock fuse together and the paint becomes a component of the wall itself.Mannerism: A format of art developed at the finish of the High Renaissance, defined by the intentional distortion and exaggeration that perspective, particularly the elongation the figures.

The Renaissance started during the 14th century and also remained the overcome style in Italy, and in much of Europe, until the 16th century. The term “renaissance” was arisen during the 19th century in bespeak to describe this duration of time and its accompanying artistic style. However, civilization who to be living throughout the Renaissance did check out themselves as different from their middle ages predecessors. Through a variety of messages that survive, we know that world living during the Renaissance saw themselves as various largely since they were deliberately trying come imitate the Ancients in art and architecture.

Florence and also the Renaissance

When girlfriend hear the hatchet “Renaissance” and photo a style of art, girlfriend are probably picturing the Renaissance style that was occurred in Florence, which came to be the conquer style of art during the Renaissance. During the center Ages and also the Renaissance, Italy was separated into a number of different city states. Every city state had actually its own government, culture, economy, and artistic style. Over there were countless different formats of art and also architecture that were occurred in Italy throughout the Renaissance. Siena, which to be a political allied of France, because that example, preserved a Gothic facet to its arts for much of the Renaissance.

Certain problems aided the advance of the Renaissance format in Florence throughout this time period. In the 15th century, Florence ended up being a significant mercantile center. The manufacturing of fabric drove their economy and a merchant class emerged. Humanism, which had emerged during the 14th century, remained critical intellectual activity that influenced art production as well.

Early Renaissance

During the at an early stage Renaissance, artists started to refuse the byzantine style of spiritual painting and strove to produce realism in their depiction that the human type and space. This aim toward realism began with Cimabue and also Giotto, and also reached its peak in the arts of the “Perfect” artists, such as Andrea Mantegna and Paolo Uccello, who created works the employed one point perspective and also played through perspective for their educated, art knowledgeable viewer.

During the early Renaissance we additionally see important advances in topic matter, in enhancement to style. While faith was critical element in the everyday life of people living throughout the Renaissance, and also remained a driving element behind creative production, we likewise see a new avenue open to panting—mythological topic matter. Many scholars allude to Botticelli’s Birth the Venus together the very first panel painting of a supernatural scene. If the tradition itself likely occurred from cassone painting, which typically featured scenes from mythology and romantic texts, the development of mythological panel paint would open a human being for artistic patronage, production, and themes.

Birth that Venus: Botticelli’s birth of Venus was amongst the most necessary works of the beforehand Renaissance.

High Renaissance

The duration known together the High Renaissance to represent the culmination of the goals of the beforehand Renaissance, specific the realistic representation of figures in space rendered through credible motion and also in an appropriately decorous style. The most famed artists from this phase space Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Titian, and Michelangelo. Their paintings and also frescoes are amongst the many widely recognized works of art in the world. Da Vinci’s Last Supper, Raphael’s The college of Athens and Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel Ceiling paintings are the masterpieces of this duration and embody the elements of the High Renaissance.

Marriage of the Virgin, through Raphael: The painting depicts a marriage ceremony between Mary and Joseph.


High Renaissance painting progressed into Mannerism in Florence. Mannerist artists, that consciously rebelled against the values of High Renaissance, tended to stand for elongated numbers in illogical spaces. Modern-day scholarship has actually recognized the volume of Mannerist art to convey strong, often religious, emotion whereby the High Renaissance fail to execute so. Several of the main artists of this period are Pontormo, Bronzino, Rosso Fiorentino, Parmigianino and Raphael’s pupil, Giulio Romano.

Art and Patronage

The Medici family used their large fortune to manage the Florentine political system and also sponsor a series of imaginative accomplishments.

Learning Objectives

Discuss the relationship in between art, patronage, and also politics during the Renaissance

Key Takeaways

Key PointsAlthough the Renaissance to be underway prior to the Medici family came to power in Florence, your patronage and also political support of the arts assisted catalyze the Renaissance into a completely fledged social movement.The Medici wealth and also influence initially derived from the textile trade guided by the guild of the Arte della Lana; v financial superiority, the Medici conquered their city’s government.Medici patronage to be responsible because that the majority of Florentine art throughout their reign, together artists normally only made your works when they received commissions in advance.Although nobody of the Medici themselves were scientists, the household is renowned to have actually been the patrons of the famous Galileo Galilei, who tutored many generations that Medici children.Key TermsLorenzo de’ Medici: one Italian statesman and also de facto leader of the Florentine Republic, that was one of the most powerful and enthusiastic patrons that the Renaissance.patronage: The support, encouragement, privilege, or financial assist that an organization or individual bestows top top another, particularly in the arts.


It has long been a issue of controversy why the Renaissance began in Florence, and not elsewhere in Italy. Scholars have noted several features distinct to Florentine social life that may have caused together a cultural movement. Numerous have emphasized the role played by the Medici, a bank family and later ducal ruling house, in patronizing and stimulating the arts. Lorenzo de’ Medici (1449–1492) to be the catalyst for an massive amount of art patronage, encouraging his countrymen come commission works from the leading artists that Florence, including Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, and also Michelangelo Buonarroti. Works by Neri di Bicci, Botticelli, da Vinci, and also Filippino Lippi had been commissioned in addition by the convent di mountain Donato agli Scopeti of the Augustinians bespeak in Florence.

The Medici residence Patronage

The residence of Medici to be an Italian bank family, politics dynasty, and later royal residence that an initial began come gather prestige under Cosimo de’ Medici in the Republic of Florence throughout the very first half of the 15th century. Your wealth and also influence initially acquired from the textile profession guided through the guild the the Arte della Lana. Like other signore families, they overcame their city’s government, they were able to bring Florence under their family’s power, and they developed an environment where art and Humanism might flourish. They, in addition to other family members of Italy, such together the Visconti and Sforza of Milan, the Este of Ferrara, and the Gonzaga that Mantua, fostered and also inspired the birth of the Italian Renaissance.

The biggest achievements of the Medici were in the sponsorship that art and architecture, mostly early and also High Renaissance art and also architecture. The Medici were responsible for the majority of Florentine art during their reign. Their money was far-ranging because throughout this period, artists normally only made your works once they received commissions in advance. Giovanni di Bicci de’ Medici, the an initial patron that the arts in the family, aided Masaccio and commissioned Brunelleschi because that the repair of the Basilica of mountain Lorenzo, Florence, in 1419. Cosimo the Elder’s notable imaginative associates to be Donatello and Fra Angelico. The most far-reaching addition to the list over the years to be Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564), who created work for a number of Medici, start with Lorenzo the Magnificent, that was claimed to be exceptionally fond the the young Michelangelo, inviting the to research the household collection of neck sculpture. Lorenzo likewise served together patron of Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) for 7 years. Indeed, Lorenzo was an artist in his very own right, and also an author of poetry and also song; his assistance of the arts and letters is seen as a high suggest in Medici patronage.


The Medici House: Medici family members inserted allegorically in the entourage the a king native the three Wise guys in the Tuscan landscape in a Benozzo Gozzoli fresco, c. 1459.

In architecture, the Medici room responsible for part notable attributes of Florence, including the Uffizi Gallery, the Boboli Gardens, the Belvedere, the Medici Chapel, and the Palazzo Medici. Later, in Rome, the Medici Popes continued in the family members tradition through patronizing artist in Rome. Pope Leo X would certainly chiefly commission works from Raphael. Pope Clement VII commissioned Michelangelo to paint the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel just prior to the pontiff’s fatality in 1534. Eleanor that Toledo, princess that Spain and wife that Cosimo ns the Great, purchase the Pitti royal residence from Buonaccorso Pitti in 1550. Cosimo in turn patronized Vasari, who put up the Uffizi gallery in 1560 and founded the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno (“Academy that the arts of Drawing”) in 1563. Marie de’ Medici, widow that Henry IV that France and also mother the Louis XIII, is the topic of a i was delegated cycle the paintings recognized as the Marie de’ Medici cycle, painted for the Luxembourg royal residence by court artist Peter Paul Rubens in 1622–1623.

Although none of the Medici themselves to be scientists, the household is renowned to have been the patrons the the famed Galileo Galilei, that tutored multiple generations that Medici children and also was critical figurehead because that his patron’s pursuit for power. Galileo’s patronage was at some point abandoned by Ferdinando II once the Inquisition accused Galileo that heresy. However, the Medici family members did purchased the scientist a safe haven for many years. Galileo named the four largest moons of Jupiter after four Medici kids he tutored, return the names Galileo used are no the names right now used.

Leonardo da Vinci

While Leonardo da Vinci is admired as a scientist, an academic, and an inventor, he is most well known for his achievements as the artist of number of Renaissance masterpieces.

Learning Objectives

Describe the works of Leonardo da Vinci that demonstrate his many innovative techniques as one artist

Key Takeaways

Key PointsAmong the qualities that do da Vinci’s work distinctive are the innovative approaches that he offered in laying ~ above the paint, his detailed knowledge that anatomy, his innovative use of the human type in figurative composition, and also his use of sfumato.Among the most famous works developed by da Vinci is the tiny portrait title the Mona Lisa, recognized for the elusive smile on the woman’s face, brought around by the fact that da Vinci subtly shadowed the corners the the mouth and eyes so the the precise nature the the laugh cannot be determined.Despite his renowned paintings, da Vinci was no a prolific painter; he to be a prolific draftsman, keeping journals full of small sketches and also detailed drawings recording all manner of things that interested him.Key Termssfumato: In painting, the application of ethereal layers that translucent paint so that there is no visible transition between colors, tones, and also often objects.

While Leonardo da Vinci is substantially admired as a scientist, one academic, and an inventor, he is most well known for his achievements as the artist of several Renaissance masterpieces. His paints were groundbreaking for a variety of reasons and his works have been imitated through students and discussed at an excellent length by connoisseurs and also critics.

Among the attributes that make da Vinci’s work distinctive are the innovative techniques that he supplied in laying on the paint, his detailed knowledge of anatomy, his use of the human kind in figurative composition, and his use of sfumato. Every one of these attributes are existing in his most celebrated works, the Mona Lisa, The critical Supper, and the Virgin the the Rocks.


The Virgin that the Rocks, Leonardo da Vinci, 1483–1486: This paint shows the Madonna and Child Jesus with the infant John the Baptist and one angel, in a rocky setting.

The critical Supper

Da Vinci’s most commemorated painting the the 1490s is The critical Supper, which to be painted for the refectory of the Convent that Santa Maria della Grazie in Milan. The paint depicts the last meal common by Jesus and the 12 Apostles where he announces that among the them will betray him. As soon as finished, the painting was acclaimed together a masterpiece that design. This occupational demonstrates something that da Vinci did really well: acquisition a very traditional topic matter, such together the last Supper, and completely re-inventing it.

Prior to this moment in arts history, every representation of the last Supper followed the exact same visual tradition: Jesus and the Apostles sit at a table. Judas is put on the opposite next of the table of everyone else and is effortlessly established by the viewer. Once da Vinci painted The last Supper he inserted Judas top top the very same side that the table together Christ and also the Apostles, that are shown reacting to Jesus as he announces that among them will certainly betray him. Lock are illustrated as alarmed, upset, and also trying to recognize who will certainly commit the act. The viewer additionally has to identify which figure is Judas, who will betray Christ. By portraying the step in this manner, da Vinci has infused psychology into the work.

Unfortunately, this masterpiece the the Renaissance started to deteriorate instantly after da Vinci perfect painting, due largely to the painting method that he had chosen. Rather of making use of the technique of fresco, da Vinci had actually used tempera end a ground that was mostly gesso in an attempt to bring the subtle impacts of oil repaint to fresco. His new technique was not successful, and resulted in a surface that was subject to mold and flaking.

The critical Supper: Leonardo da Vinci’s last Supper, although much deteriorated, displayed the painter’s mastery of the human kind in figurative composition.

Mona Lisa

Among the works produced by da Vinci in the 16th century is the small portrait known as the Mona Lisa, or La Gioconda, “the laughing one.” In the existing era it is arguably the most well known painting in the world. Its call rests, in particular, top top the elusive smile on the woman’s face—its mysterious top quality brought around perhaps through the reality that the artist has actually subtly shadowed the corners of the mouth and also eyes so that the specific nature the the laugh cannot be determined.

The shadowy quality for i beg your pardon the work-related is renowned came to be called sfumato, the application of ethereal layers of translucent paint so that there is no visible change between colors, tones, and also often objects. Other attributes found in this work are the unadorned dress, in i m sorry the eyes and also hands have no vain from other details; the dramatic landscape background, in which the world seems to be in a state of flux; the subdued coloring; and the incredibly smooth nature of the painterly technique, employing oils, but applied much choose tempera and blended on the surface so the the brushstrokes are indistinguishable. And also again, da Vinci is innovating top top a kind of painting here. Portraits were very common in the Renaissance. However, portraits of women were constantly in profile, which was seen as proper and also modest. Here, da Vinci present a portrait the a woman that not only encounters the viewer yet follows them through her eyes.

Mona Lisa: In the Mona Lisa, da Vinci incorporates his sfumato method to create a shadowy quality.

Virgin and also Child v St. Anne

In the painting Virgin and Child v St. Anne, da Vinci’s ingredient again picks up the layout of figures in a landscape. What renders this painting unusual is that there are two obliquely collection figures superimposed. Mary is seated on the knee of she mother, St. Anne. She leans front to restrain the Christ son as the plays about with a lamb, the sign of his own brewing sacrifice. This painting influenced plenty of contemporaries, consisting of Michelangelo, Raphael, and Andrea del Sarto. The trends in its composition were embraced in certain by the Venetian artist Tintoretto and Veronese.

Virgin and Child with Saint Anne: Virgin and Child with St. Ann (c. 1510) through Leonardo da Vinci, Louvre Museum.


Michelangelo was a 16th century Florentine artist renowned for his masterpieces in sculpture, painting, and architectural design.

Learning Objectives

Discuss Michelangelo’s success in sculpture, painting, and also architecture

Key Takeaways

Key PointsMichelangelo produced his colossal marble statue, the David, the end of a solitary block that marble, which established his importance as a sculptor of extraordinary technological skill and also strength that symbolic imagination.In painting, Michelangelo is renowned because that the ceiling and also The critical Judgement of the Sistine Chapel, where he depicted a complex scheme representing Creation, the Downfall of Man, the Salvation that Man, and also the ancestry of Christ.Michelangelo’s chief donation to Saint Peter’s Basilica was the use of a Greek Cross kind and an exterior masonry of massive proportions, v every edge filled in through a stairwell or small vestry. The effect is a consistent wall-surface that appears fractured or folded at different angles.Key Termscontrapposto: The standing place of a human figure where many of the weight is inserted on one foot, and also the various other leg is relaxed. The result of contrapposto in art makes numbers look really naturalistic.Sistine Chapel: The best-known chapel in the Apostolic Palace.

Michelangelo to be a 16th century Florentine artist renowned because that his masterpieces in sculpture, painting, and also architectural design. His most well known works are the David, the Last Judgment, and also the Basilica that Saint Peter’s in the Vatican.

Sculpture: David

In 1504, Michelangelo was i was delegated to create a colossal marble statue showing David together a symbol of Florentine freedom. The subsequent masterpiece, David, established the artist’s prestige as a sculptor of extraordinary technical skill and strength that symbolic imagination. David was created out that a solitary marble block, and also stands bigger than life, as it was initially intended come adorn the Florence Cathedral. The work differs indigenous previous depictions in that the Biblical hero is not depicted with the head that the slain Goliath, together he is in Donatello’s and also Verrocchio’s statues; both had represented the hero standing victorious over the head the Goliath. No earlier Florentine artist had actually omitted the large altogether. Instead of appearing victorious end a foe, David’s face looks tense and also ready for combat. The tendons in his neck stand out tautly, his brow is furrowed, and also his eye seem to emphasis intently on miscellaneous in the distance. Veins bulge the end of his lowered best hand, however his body is in a tranquil contrapposto pose, and also he tote his sling casually thrown end his left shoulder. In the Renaissance, contrapposto poses were believed of as a distinctive feature of antique sculpture.

The David by Michelangelo, 1504: Michelangelo’s David stands in contrapposto pose.

The sculpture was intended come be inserted on the exterior that the Duomo, and has end up being one the the most well-known works that Renaissance sculpture.

Painting: The critical Judgement

In painting, Michelangelo is renowned for his work in the Sistine Chapel. That was initially commissioned to paint tromp-l’oeil coffers ~ the original ceiling emerged a crack. Michelangelo lobbied for a different and more complex scheme, representing Creation, the Downfall of Man, the Promise of Salvation with the prophets, and also the family tree of Christ. The job-related is component of a bigger scheme the decoration within the chapel the represents much of the doctrine of the Catholic Church.

The ingredient eventually contained over 300 figures, and also had at its facility nine episodes from the publication of Genesis, divided into three groups: God’s development of the Earth, God’s development of Humankind, and also their fall from God’s grace, and also lastly, the state of mankind as represented by Noah and his family. Twelve men and also women who prophesied the coming of the Jesus room painted top top the pendentives sustaining the ceiling. Among the most well known paintings top top the ceiling room The development of Adam, Adam and also Eve in the Garden that Eden, the an excellent Flood, the Prophet Isaiah and the Cumaean Sibyl. The ancestors the Christ room painted roughly the windows.

The fresco of The Last referee on the altar wall surface of the Sistine Chapel was i was delegated by Pope Clement VII, and Michelangelo labored on the project from 1536–1541. The work is located on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel, i m sorry is no a traditional placement because that the subject. Typically, critical judgement scene were put on the exit wall of churches together a way to remind the viewer that eternal punishments as they left worship. The Last judgment is a explicate of the second coming the Christ and the apocalypse; wherein the souls of mankind rise and also are assigned come their miscellaneous fates, as judged by Christ, surrounded by the Saints. In contrast to the previously figures Michelangelo painted on the ceiling, the figures in The last Judgement are heavily muscled and are in much much more artificial poses, demonstrating how this job-related is in the Mannerist style.

In this occupational Michelangelo has rejected the orderly depiction of the last judgement as created by Medieval tradition in donate of a swirling scene of chaos as each spirit is judged. As soon as the painting was revealed the was greatly criticized because that its inclusion of timeless imagery and for the amount of nude figures in somewhat suggestive poses. The okay reception that the job-related received might be tied come the counter Reformation and also the board of directors of Trent, which cause a preference for an ext conservative religious art there is no of timeless references. Back a number of figures were made much more modest through the addition of drapery, the changes were no made till after the death of Michelangelo, demonstrating the respect and admiration that was afforded to him during his lifetime.

The critical Judgement: The fresco the The Last referee on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel was commissioned by Pope Clement VII. Michelangelo operated on the task from 1534–1541.

Architecture: St. Peter’s Basilica

Finally, although other architects to be involved, Michelangelo is given credit for developing St. Peter’s Basilica. Michelangelo’s chief donation was the use of a symmetrical arrangement of a Greek Cross form and an outside masonry of enormous proportions, v every edge filled in by a stairwell or tiny vestry. The result is of a consistent wall surface ar that is folded or broken at different angles, doing not have the appropriate angles that generally define change of direction at the corners the a building. This exterior is surrounding by a large order of Corinthian pilasters all collection at slightly different angles to each other, in maintaining with the ever-changing angle of the wall’s surface. Above them the large cornice ripples in a constant band, giving the illustration of maintaining the whole building in a state of compression.

St. Peter’s Basillica: Michelangelo design the dome that St. Peter’s Basilica ~ above or prior to 1564, back it to be unfinished when he died.


Mannerist artists started to reject the harmony and ideal proportions that the Renaissance in favor of irrational settings, artificial colors, unclear subject matters, and elongated forms.

Learning Objectives

Describe the Mannerist style, how it different from the Renaissance, and reasons why the emerged.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsMannerism come after the High Renaissance and before the Baroque.The artists that came a generation after Raphael and also Michelangelo had a dilemma. They could not surpass the good works the had currently been created by Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and also Michelangelo. This is as soon as we start to view Mannerism emerge.Jacopo da Pontormo (1494–1557) to represent the transition from the Renaissance to the Mannerist style.Key TermsMannerism: layout of arts in Europe indigenous c. 1520–1600. Mannerism came after the High Renaissance and before the Baroque. Not every artist painting throughout this duration is considered a Mannerist artist.

Mannerism is the name given to a style of arts in Europe native c. 1520–1600. Mannerism came after the High Renaissance and before the Baroque. No every artist painting during this period is thought about a Mannerist artist, however, and also there is much debate amongst scholars end whether Mannerism need to be taken into consideration a separate activity from the High Renaissance, or a stylistic step of the High Renaissance. Mannerism will be treated together a separate art movement here as there are numerous differences in between the High Renaissance and the Mannerist styles.


What renders a occupational of art Mannerist? first we must understand the ideals and also goals that the Renaissance. Throughout the Renaissance artists were engaging v classical classical times in a brand-new way. In addition, they arisen theories ~ above perspective, and also in all means strived to produce works of art that were perfect, harmonious, and also showed ideal depictions that the organic world. Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and also Michelangelo are considered the artists who got to the greatest achievements in art during the Renaissance.

The Renaissance emphasize harmony and beauty and no one might create much more beautiful functions than the great three artists provided above. The artists who came a generation after had a dilemma; they can not surpass the an excellent works the had already been developed by da Vinci, Raphael, and also Michelangelo. This is when we begin to see Mannerism emerge. Younger artist trying to perform something new and different began to refuse harmony and also ideal proportions in donate of irrational settings, man-made colors, unclear topic matters, and elongated forms.

Jacopo da Pontormo

Jacopo da Pontormo (1494–1557) represents the shift from the Renaissance come the Mannerist style. Take for example his Deposition from the Cross, one altarpiece that was painted for a chapel in the Church the Santa Felicita, Florence. The numbers of Mary and also Jesus show up to be a direct reference to Michelangelo’s Pieta. Back the work-related is dubbed a “Deposition,” over there is no cross. Scholars also refer to this work-related as the “Entombment” yet there is no tomb. This absence of clarity on subject matter is a hallmark that Mannerist painting. In addition, the setup is irrational, almost as if it is not in this world, and also the colors are much from naturalistic. This work can not have actually been created by a Renaissance artist. The Mannerist activity stresses different goals and also this work-related of arts by Pontormo displayed this new, and also different style.

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Pontormo, Deposition native the Cross, 1525-1528, Church the Santa Felicita, Florence: This occupational of art by Pontormo displayed the hallmarks that the Mannerist style: unclear topic matter, irrational setting, and artificial colors.