social psychology
the clinical study of how we think about, influence, and relate come one another.

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attribution theoryexplains someone’s behavior by crediting one of two people the instance or the person’s disposition.
fundamental attribution errorthe propensity for observers, when examining another’s behavior, come underestimate the affect of the situation and to evaluate the affect of personal disposition.
attitudefeelings, frequently influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to answer in a particular means to objects, people, and events.
central path persuasionattitude adjust path in i beg your pardon interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
peripheral path persuasionattitude adjust path in which people are affected by incidental cues, such together a speaker’s attractiveness.
foot-in-the-door phenomenonthe tendency for human being who have very first agreed come a tiny request to comply later on with a larger request.
rolea set of expectation (norms) about a society position, defining how those in the place ought come behave.
cognitive dissonance theoryexplains that we act to alleviate the discomfort (dissonance) us feel as soon as two the our think (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and also of our actions clash, we have the right to reduce the result dissonance by an altering our attitudes.
conformityadjusting one’s habits or reasoning to coincide v a team standard.
normative society influenceresults from a who desire to acquire approval or stop disapproval.
informational social influenceresults indigenous one’s willingness to expropriate others’ opinions about reality.
social facilitationstronger responses on an easy or well-learned tasks in the existence of others.
social loafingthe tendency for people in a team to exert less initiative when pooling their efforts toward attaining a typical goal than once individually accountable.
deindividuationthe lose of self-awareness and self-restraint emerging in group cases that foster arousal and anonymity.
group polarizationthe improvement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
groupthinkoccurs when the desire because that harmony in a decision-making team overrides a reality appraisal of alternatives.
culturethe enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions mutual by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
norman understood rule for accepted and expected behavior; prescribe “proper” behavior.
personal spacethe buffer region we prefer to maintain approximately our bodies.
prejudicean unjustifiable (and generally negative) attitude toward a group and its members; generally entails stereotyped beliefs, an adverse feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
stereotypea generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
discriminationunjustifiable negative behavior towards a group and also its members.
ingroup“Us”—people with whom we share a usual identity.
outgroup"Them”—those regarded as different or apart from our very own group.
ingroup biasthe propensity to favor our own group.
scapegoat theorythe concept that prejudice uses an outlet because that anger by offering someone to blame.
other-race effectthe propensity to recall deals with of one’s very own race much more accurately than deals with of other races. Likewise called the cross-race effect and also the own-race bias.
just-world phenomenonthe propensity for people to believe the civilization is fair and that people thus get what lock deserve and also deserve what they get.
aggressionphysical or verbal habits intended to hurt someone.
frustration-aggression principlethe idea the aggravation—the blocking of an attempt to attain some goal—creates anger, which deserve to generate hostility.
mere exposure effectthe phenomenon the repeated contact with novel stimuli increases liking of them.
passionate lovean aroused state of intense hopeful absorption in another, usually existing at the start of a romantic relationship.
companionate lovethe deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our resides are intertwined.
equitya condition in which world receive indigenous a connection in proportion to what they give to it.
self-disclosurerevealing intimate elements of oneself come others.
altruismunselfish regard because that the welfare of others.
bystander effectthe propensity for any given passerby come be less likely to give help if rather passing by room present.
social exchange theorythe idea that our social actions is an exchange process, the aim of i beg your pardon is come maximize benefits and also minimize costs.
reciprocity norman expectation that human being will help, no hurt, those who have helped them.
social-responsibility norman expectation that people will assist those dependent ~ above them.
conflicta regarded incompatibility the actions, goals, or ideas.
social trapa situation in i beg your pardon the conflict parties, by each rationally pursuing your self-interest, come to be caught in mutually damaging behavior.
mirror-image perceptionsmutual views often held by conflicting people, as as soon as each side sees itself as ethical and also peaceful and also views the other side as evil and also aggressive.
self-fulfilling prophecya belief that leads to its own acheivement.
superordinate goalsshared objectives that override differences among people and require their cooperation.

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GRITGraduated and Reciprocated efforts in Tension-Reduction—a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.