Display in the new Urfa Museum in Turkey – a depiction of at an early stage man hunting.

You are watching: Solar induced dark age

Rising native the Ashes of SIDA

By Robert M. Schoch

What was the state that humanity before civilization arose? To today the famous conception, both among the public and as promulgated by countless historians and also archaeologists, is the of small, mostly nomadic, bands of world perpetually on the brink that existence, endlessly in pursuit of their following meal. The words of the thinker Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) still resonate in expressing this myth: “. . . The life of guy solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”1 that is, humans were just hunters and also gatherers foraging for food. The modern technology of the time was primitive, defined as “stone age”. Social organizations were minimal. In warmer climates people could walk naked, whereas in cooler climates lock wrapped us in pet skins and huddled in caves. Follow to the traditional paradigm, together espoused through the good archaeological synthesizer V. Gordon Childe (1892-1957), this all changed with the domestication that plants and animals and the advance of agriculture, which ultimately led come the very first great people taking source in such regions as Mesopotamia and also Egypt approximately 5000 come 6000 years ago.

This pretty neat scenario might be the contemporary dogma, but that does no assure its veracity. There is another, lot older, view found among the timeless ancients – consisting of the Greeks, the Romans, and the dynastic Egyptians – i beg your pardon is encapsulated in the legend the Atlantis as recounted through Plato (ca. 429-423 to ca. 348-347 BCE). The main point of the Atlantis story is that a high culture, a true civilization, existed hundreds of years prior to the many recent flowering of civilization, circa 4000 BCE to 3000 BCE. Furthermore, this earlier civilization was ruined cataclysmically by herbal events, including the island country of Atlantis being enveloped by the ocean waters (that is, it to be flooded). Most interestingly, Plato offers a an accurate chronology which, when translated into our modern system that dating, locations the fall of Atlantis at circa 9600 BCE – tantalizingly close come the end of the critical ice period circa 9700 BCE, as identified by modern-day geological techniques.

Plato. Luni marble, copy the the portrait made by Silanion ca. 370 BC because that the Academia in Athens. Photograph courtesy of Marie-Lan Nguyen, 2009.

The Atlantis story does not exist in isolation. About the world there are ancient and indigenous legends the early progressed peoples, civilizations, that existed countless years earlier (thousands that years prior to the latest flowering of human being beginning about 5000 to 6000 years ago). These at an early stage societies and civilizations to be subsequently ruined by herbal cataclysms. The dynastic Egyptians two thousand years before Plato spoke of an date they described as Zep Tepi, or the “first time”, a “golden age” of civilization. In modern terms, Zep Tepi may well date to the millennia just prior to the finish of the last ice age.2

Such stories, it is in they framed in terms of Atlantis, Zep Tepi, or Judeo-Christian Biblical pre-deluge humanity, are disparaged and offhandedly dismissed by many contemporary academics. However the hallmark of an excellent science and scholarship is to constantly stick v the evidence, adhering to it where it may lead, even if it is or not it contradicts the renowned paradigm the the day. In a sense, both the modern Hobbesian view (that humankind was in a primitive and also brutish state before the increase of civilization around 5000 to 6000 thousand year ago) and also the classical old opinion (that advanced civilizations existed thousands of years earlier) may be correct.

As I sophisticated upon briefly listed below (and discuss more fully in my book Forgotten Civilization), in my assessment over there is currently overwhelming proof that sophisticated culture – human being – existed prior to the finish of the last ice age, and also this is what offered rise to the story the Atlantis and comparable legends (thus confirming Plato and also other old traditions). However, this early cycle of human being was handle a mighty setback; it to be utterly devastated, with only a few isolated remnants surviving, through the natural cataclysms that brought the last ice age to a close, circa 9700 BCE.

Major solar outbursts and eruptions, the likes that which have actually not been proficient on earth in contemporary times, to be the instigating factors that finished the last ice age and brought early world to that knees. A dark period ensued, which I describe as SIDA (solar-induced dark age3). For thousands of years complying with the finish of the last ice period humanity was decreased to the brutish Hobbesian state – hunting, foraging, and also eking out a hardscrabble existence; and this had living in caves in some regions. Indeed, retreating come caves and also other underground shelters would have actually been a means for isolated pockets of humanity to make it through the cataclysmic solar-induced onslaughts in ~ the finish of the last ice cream age. Electrical plasma discharges from the Sun, driven to the surface ar of ours planet, would have actually caused widespread incineration whereby they touched down too as setup off wildfires. Solar outbursts not just warmed the planet in its entirety but, hitting glaciers, oceans, and also lakes, v melting and also instantaneous evaporation, would have actually placed vast amounts of moisture right into the setting that subsequently came down as torrential rains. This rains, an unified with increasing sea levels, resulted in widespread flooding across the globe.

Thus during the millennia before the recent cycle the civilization, beginning circa 5000 come 6000 years ago, mankind was in a primitive stone age state, as the conventional paradigm holds, except that this state was as result of a decline from an previously and more advanced state. After ~ a time lag the millennia, world as we understand it occurred from the literal meaning ashes of SIDA.

Timeline for SIDA and the reemergence that civilization.

On a an individual note, at Yale university (where ns earned mine Ph.D.) i was trained in the conventional paradigm regarding the when, where, and also why that the increase of civilization. For numerous years i literally would not also voice the word “Atlantis” in public for fear of gift mocked by my academic peers. Currently I have bucked academic conventions and also even to be labeled a heretic by some. Why walk I change my opinion? In a nutshell, i am encouraged that the proof tells a different, an ext complex, story 보다 the basic scenario ns was teach so countless years ago.


Back in 1991, I had actually the temerity to announce that the an excellent Sphinx of Egypt, conventionally dated come 2500 BCE (the regime of Pharaoh Khafre), actually has actually its origins in the 7000 to 5000 BCE range, or maybe earlier. My announcement was done via a presentation in ~ the October 1991 yearly meeting the the Geological culture of America (this was allowed only after a formal abstract, submitted with my colleague john Anthony West, to be accepted based upon positive professional peer review).4 i made my instance utilizing clinical analyses, comparing erosion and also weathering profiles about the Sphinx to the ancient climatic background of Egypt. In brief, the Sphinx sit on the sheet of the Sahara Desert, a hyper-arid an ar for the past 5000 years; however the frostbite shows substantial rain-induced erosion. The initial structure must date ago thousands the years before 3000 BCE (the head to be re-carved in dynastic times).

The great Sphinx of Egypt in that is enclosure, v an illustration mirroring the deep fissures and also undulating surfaces developed by water (rainfall) weathering.

I had actually pushed the great Sphinx, arguably the grandest and most recognizable frosting in the world, back into a duration when humanity was supposedly simply transitioning from a hunter-gatherer economic climate to a sedentary life. Civilization 7000 or more years back were quiet brutish and also unsavory, at the very least by modern civilized standards. Absolutely they were no carving giant statues (the Sphinx is about 20 meters tall by end 70 meter long) the end of solid limestone bedrock. Instantly after my notice of an larger Sphinx, ns was under attack. Excavator Carol Redmount (University the California, Berkeley) was quoted in the media, “There’s simply no means that could be true.” The short article continued, “The civilization of that an ar would no have had actually the technology, the governing institutions or also the will certainly to develop such a framework thousands of years before Khafre’s reign, she said.”5

The early hoopla peaked in February 1992 in ~ a “debate” top top the age of the good Sphinx held at the Chicago meeting of the American Association for the advance of Science.6 as the brand-new York Times placed it, “The exchange to be to last an hour, but it spilled over to a news conference and also then a hallway confrontation in i beg your pardon voices to be raised and words skated top top the icy edge of scientific politeness.” Egyptologist note Lehner could not accept the notion of an older Sphinx, personally attack me by labeling my research “pseudoscience.” Lehner argued, “If the Sphinx was developed by an earlier culture, wherein is the evidence of the civilization? Where are the pottery shards? world during that period were hunters and also gatherers. They didn’t construct cities.”7 At the time I lacked any pottery shards. Yet I was sure of mine science, and also I persisted. Years later, we have something better than pottery shards, and even earlier than my conservative Sphinx date of circa 7000 BCE to 5000 BCE (I now right now posit, based on additional evidence and a reanalysis the my initial data, that the main point body of the an excellent Sphinx dates earlier to the finish of the last ice cream age; the head was re-carved in dynastic times). Göbekli Tepe dates back approximately 12,000 year ago.

Composite see of Göbekli Tepe (from the southeast looking northwest); photos bring away in 2010, prior to this area that the site was covered with a modern-day roof.


A brief drive indigenous Urfa (alternatively Şanlıurfa), Southeastern Turkey, atop a low hill north that the Harran Plain, sits Göbekli Tepe. In 1995 the late Prof. Dr. Klaus Schmidt of the German historical Institute began excavating the site.8 In 2010 I very first visited it because that myself. Ns was amazed.

Göbekli Tepe: first pillar uncovered by the landowner (the optimal was broken as that endeavored come plow his field).

At Göbekli Tepe immense finely carved and also decorated T-shaped limestone pillars, countless in the variety of 2 to five and also a fifty percent meters tall and weighing as much as an estimated 10 to 15 tons, was standing in Stonehenge-like circles. The workmanship is extraordinary, through clear sharp edges that would perform any modern-day mason proud. It may be a cliché, yet I cannot aid but think of the opening scene of the standard 1968 movie 2001: A space Odyssey. A group of ape-like proto-humans discovers a gigantic monolith; influenced by it, they discover to usage tools, causing civilization.9

Various pillars in ~ Göbekli Tepe are decorated v bas-reliefs of animals, including foxes, boars, snakes, aurochs (wild cattle), Asiatic wild asses, wild sheep, birds (cranes, a vulture), a gazelle, and arthropods (scorpion, ants). The carvings space refined, sophisticated, and also beautifully executed. Not only are over there bas-reliefs, but also carvings in the round, including a carnivorous beast, maybe a lion or various other feline, working its way down a column, supposedly in quest of a boar sculpted in relief below. In the ring carvings the lions and also boars have actually been uncovered, currently housed in the Museum that Şanlıurfa, as is a life-sized statue that a man, which, despite from Urfa, apparently dates to the Göbekli Tepe era. Additionally from Göbekli Tepe room perfectly drilled rock beads. And, follow to Prof. Schmidt, while few of the rock pillars were set in the local bedrock, others were set into a concrete- or terrazzo-like floor. Looking just at the style and quality the workmanship, one might easily imply that Göbekli Tepe dates in between 3000 and 1000 BCE. Just how wrong one would certainly be. Based on radiocarbon analyses, the site goes back to the duration of 9000 come 10,000 BCE (or perhaps earlier), and also was intentionally buried by no later than circa 8000 BCE.10 the is, the website dates ago an astounding 10,000 come 12,000 year ago!

This was supposedly the moment of the brutish, nomadic, hunters and gatherers who, according to countless academics, did not have actually the technology, administrate institutions, or will certainly to construct structures such as those discovered at Göbekli Tepe. Plainly there is a disconnect between what traditional historians and archaeologists have been teaching all these years and the clear evidence on the ground. As Stanford University archaeologist Ian Hodder commented, Göbekli Tepe is “unbelievably big and amazing, in ~ a ridiculously early on date... Huge good stones and also fantastic, highly refined art... Many people think the it changes everything... The overturns the entirety apple cart. All our theories were wrong.”11 choose my redating that the good Sphinx, Göbekli Tepe pressures us come reconsider our antiquity.

And like my work on the Sphinx, the specialists are perplexed through Göbekli Tepe. Patrick Symmes composed in Newsweek, “But the actual reason the ruins at Göbekli remain nearly unknown, no yet included in textbooks, is the the proof is also strong, not also weak. ‘The problem with this discovery,’ together Schwartz the Johns Hopkins put it, ‘is that it is unique.’ No other monumental sites native the era have actually been found. Before Göbekli, humans drew stick numbers on cavern walls, shaped clay right into tiny dolls, and perhaps piled up small stones for sanctuary or worship. Even after Göbekli, over there is small evidence of sophisticated building.”12

Göbekli Tepe obelisk showing detailed relief carvings; image also shows abutting an additional surrounding walls.

In a nutshell, we have proof of high society and people circa 10,000 to 9000 BCE, but then one apparent decrease or hiatus for thousands of years, till the “rise” of human being once again in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and also elsewhere. What happened?


A hallmark of world is specific scientific observation. Astronomy is often thought about the earliest yet most innovative of the sciences. A an especially subtle huge phenomenon, the exploration of which is generally attributed to Hipparchus that Rhodes in the 2nd century BCE,13 is the slow activity of the stars family member to the sun (the rising and setup points the non-circumpolar stars change with time). Well-known as precession, the entire cycle, with stars returning to your “starting points”, takes rather under 26,000 years. Part researchers imply that precession was well-known to the old Egyptians and also other early on civilizations, and also is reflected in myths worldwide.14 Others dispute such assertions. I discovered evidence the precession in ~ Göbekli Tepe, adding another great of sophistication to this remarkable site.

The excavated portions of Göbekli Tepe lie on the southerly slope the a hill looking out to the southern skies. For this reason far, the better part the four stone circles (enclosures) has actually been excavated in an area measuring about 40 through 40 meter square. Additional, later and also smaller, pillars and structures have actually been partially uncovered both 20 to 30 meters phibìc and around 80 meter west that the major area of circles,15 and eighteen or more stone circles still under the planet have to be identified. Enclosure D is located furthest north. Come the south east lies Enclosure C, and also to the southern of Enclosure D lies Enclosure B and finally A. The enclosures are very close to every other, almost abutting. Every enclosure own a pair the tall main parallel pillars ringed by a one of much shorter pillars with later stonewalls between the pillars. If in ~ some allude the enclosures were spanned over, castle may have actually been gone into from above; indeed, possible carved stone “portals” have actually been found that may have been collection in a roof.

The central pairs the pillars space oriented typically toward the southeast, together if forming sighting tubes toward the sky. The central pillars that Enclosure D include arms and hands, with the hand holding the belly or navel area, and also it is clear the the anthropomorphic pillars are encountering south. The orientations vary from enclosure to enclosure, however. Because that Enclosure D the central pillars space oriented approximately 7º east of south. Those for Enclosures C, B, and also A are roughly 13º eastern of south, 20º east of south, and also 35º east of south respectively.16 These differing angles indicate the building contractors were observing stars and also building new enclosures oriented progressively toward the eastern as castle followed particular stars or star swarm over thousands of years.


What to be the home builders observing? This is a daunting question to answer, but we deserve to hypothesize. ~ above the morning the the Vernal Equinox of circa 10,000 BCE, prior to the Sun increased due eastern at Göbekli Tepe, the Pleiades, Taurus, and also the peak of Orion to be in watch in the direction suggested by the main stones the Enclosure D, v Orion’s belt no far over the horizon (as seen from the finest vantage points in the area) together dawn broke.17 A similar scenario played the end for the orientation the the main stones of Enclosure C in circa 9500 BCE and for Enclosure B in circa 9000 BCE. Enclosure A is oriented towards the Pleiades, Taurus, and also Orion top top the morning the the Vernal Equinox circa 8500 BCE, however due to precessional changes, the whole belt of Orion no much longer rose over the horizon prior to dawn broke. By around 8150 BCE the belt the Orion remained below the horizon in ~ dawn on the morning the the Vernal Equinox. These dates fit well the timeframe established for Göbekli Tepe on the basis of radiocarbon dating.

Enclosures D, C, B, and also A that Göbekli Tepe, looking slightly southeast towards the horizon (photo take it in 2010, before the area was roofed). The illustrations that Orion and Taurus space rough approximations.

The Vernal Equinox is easily observed and also noted, and since the beginning of recorded history has been critical marker, celebrated with festivities. The marks the an initial day that the year in plenty of calendars, and also is tied to cosmological creation stories. I suspect that these legacies go back to Göbekli Tepe times, and even earlier.

Central tower of Enclosure D at Göbekli Tepe, showing humanlike features (arms, hands, animal nestled in the elbow joint, belt through symbols, fox-pelt loincloth); picture taken in 2010.

The Orion-Taurus region of the sky has been a focus of old humans for tens of hundreds of years in Europe and also the center East. Below are located the asterisms that Orion’s belt and the Hyades, and the Pleiades. Researcher such together Michael Rappenglueck, candid Edge, and Luz Antequera Congregado have established the constellationTaurus and the Pleiades among the paints of Lascaux cave, France, dating back 16,500 year ago.18 Additionally, Rappenglueck asserts that a tiny tablet from Germany, carved of mammoth ivory and dating earlier at least 32,500 years, depicts the constellation Orion in the familiar guise that a narrow-waist male with outstretched arms and also legs.19 given such evidence, it is reasonable that the Göbekli Tepe human being recognized Orion together a human being figure, also as a hunter. The mammal remains uncovered while excavating Göbekli Tepe (including many gazelle, aurochs or wild cattle, wild ass, fox, wild sheep/goat species, and also boars), and the reliefs ~ above the pillars, can be take away to indicate a searching society. Indeed, studying the humanlike pillars that Enclosure D, they might represent, in stylized form, Orion. Not just do they have actually arms (which might be construed as the arms of Orion carried down come the body), but additionally prominent belts (the belt stars the Orion), and also a fox or dog-like creature nestled in the eight of one pillar, which might represent Sirius, the Dog Star. Simply as Orion travels through his companion, Sirius, so too execute the Göbekli Tepe pillars.

Are we looking at scientific research (in this instance astronomy) encoded in the language of arts (stone sculpture)? Yes, i do think this could be the case. Furthermore, the main pillars the Enclosure D have actually fox pelt loincloths that might possibly represent the Orion Nebula and associated features. However, if the fox pelt loincloth does represent the Orion Nebula, this may be a remembrance of a attribute that to be visible over the horizon circa 12,000 BCE and also earlier at Göbekli Tepe, as it no longer appeared above the horizon throughout the period of 10,000 to 8000 BCE in ~ Göbekli Tepe. Or, it might be the the Göbekli Tepe world knew that this feature from city hall Orion at much more southern latitudes, such as in the area of Giza, Egypt, wherein the Orion Nebula rose over the horizon circa 10,000 to 8000 BCE.

My ide that the Göbekli Tepe human being were observing the Orion-Taurus-Pleiades region of the sky on the morning that the Vernal Equinox is merely a hypothesis. If they were observing stars (versus the Sun, for instance), then they required to readjust their observations over the centuries due to precessional changes. And maybe they were observing something much more than just the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars.


Easter Island moai through hands to the navel region.

Having changed from Easter Island (January 2010) no long before my an initial visit to Göbekli Tepe (May 2010), i was surprised come see countless iconographic similarities between the two. I believe these similarities space real, yet I can have missed castle if I had actually not been to both website in succession. Furthermore, both Easter Island and also Göbekli Tepe may relate to powerful electrical discharge plasma events in the skies at the finish of the last ice age.

The outstanding feature of Easter Island is the moai, those huge rock heads and torsos that period the island. In the situation of Göbekli Tepe, stone pillars conquer the scene. Amazingly, both the moai and also the anthropomorphic main pillars that Enclosure D at Göbekli Tepe have actually arms and also hands positioned likewise against the body, v hands and also fingers prolonged over the belly and navel region. The moai are looking up at the skies, and I believe the Göbekli Tepe pillars are also looking in the direction of the skies. Are they feather to identical phenomena?

As i have debated elsewhere,20 the native Easter Island rongorongo script may record, or have been inspired by (the making it through rongorongo tablets space assuredly recent, being copies of copies of copies...), a major plasma event in the skies countless years ago, in ~ the finish of the last ice cream age. Plasma is composed of electrically fee particles. Acquainted plasma phenomena on earth today include lightning and auroras, the northern and southern lights. In the past, much more powerful plasma events may have actually taken place, perhaps due to coronal mass ejections from the sunlight or emissions from various other celestial objects. Powerful plasma phenomena might cause strong electrical discharges to hit Earth, burning and also incinerating products on the planet’s surface. Los Alamos plasma physicist Anthony L. Peratt and also his associates have established that petroglyphs found an international record an extreme plasma event (or events) in prehistory.21 Peratt has established that an effective plasma phenomena observed in the skies would take on characteristic forms resembling humanoid figures, people with bird heads, to adjust of ring or donut shapes, and also writhing line or serpents—shapes reflected in the ancient petroglyphs. Plasma occasions may it is in a dominant theme found amongst the old remains that Easter Island. Likewise, plasma may be essential to understanding Göbekli Tepe.

One of the strange and perplexing aspects of Göbekli Tepe is the it to be not just abandoned and also left to oblivion, but intentionally buried no later than circa 8000 BCE. Furthermore, before its last burial, stonewalls to be built between the finely wrought pillars. These wall surfaces are, in my opinion, plainly secondary together in many cases they cover end the fine relief carvings on the pillars. They are additionally much cruder 보다 the pillars. Additionally, part pillars appear to have actually fallen over and also broken, and also were ultimately repaired or re-erected when the wall surfaces were built. In several situations the bases that the broken pillars are lacking or lying horizontally under the tops of the damaged pillars that were collection to the correct height on a heap of stones. At this late phase the walls and also pillars may have actually been roofed over.

Plate 24 from forgotten Civilization: The role of Solar Outbursts in ours Past and Future through Robert Schoch (Plasma and petroglyph illustrations courtesy that Dr. Anthony L. Peratt, reprinted v permission indigenous IEEE Transactions top top Plasma Science, December 2003, volume 31).

Among the oddities the Easter Island are the low-lying, solid, thick-walled stone buildings with narrow gateways that look favor bunkers or autumn shelters. These stone “houses” of Easter Island are comparable to the structures formed by the walls and pillars the Göbekli Tepe. Could they, in both cases, have actually been defense from some kind of phenomena create from the skies, such together plasma strikes? Some might criticize comparisons in between Easter Island and also Göbekli Tepe not only on the basis that they space on opposite political parties of the globe, but are likewise ostensibly be separate by countless years (Göbekli Tepe dating from 8000 BCE and before, whereas follow to traditional chronologies Easter Island to be not occupied until a mere millennium and a half ago). In counterargument, I inquiry whether we really know when Easter Island was very first colonized. Also if enduring Easter Island antiquities and structures room from a fairly late period, they may reflect previously traditions and styles, perhaps brought by inhabitants from elsewhere, the date earlier to a time of extreme plasma outbursts. The rongorongo tablet computers may carefully preserve ancient texts the were copied over and over.

Just together I have suggested that the Easter Island rongorongo script documents plasma events in the old skies, so too might particular carved motifs discovered at Göbekli Tepe. Peratt has made the connection between birdman petroglyphs and plasma phenomena roughly the world. On Easter Island we find birdman petroglyphs and also birdmen and also bird symbols amongst the rongorongo hieroglyphs. In ~ Göbekli Tepe a very similar bird kind was sculpted into among the pillars. Peratt records many plasma phenomena that have the right to be taken as having the figure of snakes. Many "snakes" are uncovered on the pillars that Göbekli Tepe, slithering vertically up and down the end of few of the columns. Can these represent substantial bolts that plasma?


Based on the proof slowly being pieced together, it shows up there to be a significant plasma event, or events, in antiquity. In my book Forgotten Civilization22 I have actually made the case that a significant plasma event, circa 9700 BCE, brought about the finish of the last ice cream age. Based upon the radiocarbon dating, several of the structures at Göbekli Tepe are contemporaneous with the finish of the last ice cream age. Enclosure D in certain was initially erected prior to 9700 BCE, however suffered damage (indicated, because that instance, by a toppled and subsequently re-erected pillar) during the cataclysmic activity that brought the ice age to one end. Right now the faster crude second walls were erected between the pillars. Later stone pillars and also enclosures were erected during the early duration of turmoil just after the ice period ended, and also ultimately the entire site that Göbekli Tepe was artificially hidden (perhaps to protect it?) under a mountain of dirt and debris.

Enclosure C in ~ Göbekli Tepe, mirroring (at ground level) the precise positioning that the central pillars right into their foundations. Likewise evident in the photograph (from 2010) are the second walls supporting the outer/surrounding pillars, and also in some situations serving to prop up and reposition the broken pieces that toppled pillars (suggesting the prominence of your positioning).

With the damages to, and also ultimate burial and abandonment of, Göbekli Tepe, there have the right to be no doubt the the solar-induced dark age – SIDA – had begun. In state of material artifacts, primarily big megalithic frameworks from pre-SIDA times remained. Pockets of humanity survived in diverted spots where the natural geography and also resources were fairly hospitable. A great example is the Cappodocia region of contemporary Turkey wherein the soft volcanic radical was conducive come the excavation of extensive underground shelters and also indeed entire cities, offering protection native the sometimes solar outbursts that most likely ongoing for centuries or millennia ~ the nearby of the last ice cream age, rather analogous to the aftershocks adhering to a huge earthquake.

It would be 5000 to 6000 years before civilization would certainly reemerge.

Above and underground rock shelters in the Cappadocia an ar of Turkey (some the the underground cities are estimated to have at once each sheltered tens of hundreds of people, little animals, etc.).A postscript for those considering visiting Göbekli Tepe:

Göbekli Tepe is a UNESCO world Heritage Site. While continuing to be enigmatic and breathtaking, it is additionally an active archaeological site and also thus topic to constant change. The decision was made by those in government to construct a canopy end the primary excavation area. Listed below is a picture from January 2020, take away by my mam at sunrise, mirroring the site"s new awning.

Dr. Schoch in ~ Göbekli Tepe (beneath that is awning) in ~ sunrise in January 2020. The view is looking towards the northwest.

Keywords: Geologist who re-dated the an excellent Sphinx of Egypt, solar outbursts in prehistory, solar outbursts, global plasma petroglyphs, antediluvian civilization, an excellent flood, water-weathering the Sphinx, constellation Orion in prehistory, precession in prehistory, civilization prior to civilization, interpreting the rongorongo, rongorongo and also plasma configurations.


2. For further discussion of V. Gordon Childe, Plato, Atlantis, and Zep Tepi, see: Robert M. Schoch, forgotten Civilization: The duty of Solar Outbursts in our Past and also Future, Rochester, Vermont: inner Traditions, 2012.

3. A phrase and also acronym an initial suggested through my mam Catherine (Katie) Ulissey.

4. Robert M. Schoch and also John Anthony West, “Redating the great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt”, Geological culture of America abstracts with programs, vol. 23, no. 5, p. A253 (1991). For further conversation of the date of the great Sphinx, see: Robert M. Schoch. “Redating the good Sphinx of Giza”, KMT, A modern Journal of ancient Egypt, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 52-59, 66-70 (Summer 1992); Robert M. Schoch, “Geological evidence Pertaining to the age of the an excellent Sphinx”, in brand-new Scenarios on the evolution of the Solar device and consequences on history of Earth and Man (Eds. Emilio Spedicato and Adalberto Notarpietro), Proceedings of the Conference, Milano and Bergamo, June 7-9th, 1999. Università degli Studi di Bergamo, Quaderni del Dipartmento di Matematica, Statistica, Informatica ed Applicazion, Serie Miscellanea, Anno 2002, N. 3, pp. 171-203 (2002); Robert M. Schoch, “Life v the great Sphinx: Some personal Reflections”, Darklore, vol. 1, pp. 38-55, 291 (2007); Robert M. Schoch through Robert Aquinas McNally, Voices of the Rocks: A Scientist look at at disasters and ancient Civilizations, new York: Harmony Books, 1999; Robert M. Schoch with Robert Aquinas McNally, voyages of the Pyramid Builders: The True origins of the Pyramids from shed Egypt to ancient America, new York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin, 2003; Robert M. Schoch and also Robert Aquinas McNally, Pyramid Quest: keys of the an excellent Pyramid and the Dawn of Civilization, brand-new York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin, 2005; Robert M. Schoch and John Anthony West, “Further evidence Supporting a Pre-2500 B.C. Date for the great Sphinx that Giza, Egypt”, Geological society of America abstracts through programs, v. 32, no. 7, p. A276 (2000); T. L. Dobecki and R. M. Schoch, “Seismic investigations in the Vicinity of the an excellent Sphinx of Giza, Egypt”, Geoarchaeology, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 527-544 (1992); R. M. Schoch and also R. Bauval, origins of the Sphinx, Rochester, Vermont: within Traditions, 2017.

8. Klaus Schmidt, Sie bauten dice ersten Tempel: Das rätselhafte Heiligtum der Steinzeitjäger, dice archäologische Entdeckung am Göbekli Tepe, München: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 2006/2008; Klaus Schmidt, Taş Çaği Avcılarının Gizemli Kutsal Alanı Göbekli Tepe En Eski Tapınağı Yapanlar, Istanbul: Arkeolojí ve Sanat Yayınları, 2007; K. Schmidt, “Göbekli Tepe, Southeastern Turkey: A Preliminary Report top top the 1995-1999 Excavations,” Paléorient, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 45-54 (2001); Joris Peters and Klaus Schmidt, “Animals in the symbolic people of Pre-Pottery Neolithic Göbekli Tepe, south-eastern Turkey: a preliminary assessment”, Anthropozoologica, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 179-218 (2004). For well-known discussions of Göbekli Tepe, see: Graham Chandler, “The start of the end for Hunter-Gathers.” Saudi ARAMCO World, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 2-9 (March/April 2009); Andrew Curry (photographs by Berthold Steinhilber), “The World’s first Temple? Predating Stonehenge through 6,000 years, Turkey’s Stunning Göbekli Tepe Upends the typical View the the climb of Civilization”, Smithsonian, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 54-58, 60 (November 2008); Patrick Symmes, “History in the Remaking: A temple complicated in Turkey that predates also the pyramids is rewriting the story of human evolution”, Newsweek, 1 march 2010, post published online 19 February 2010 at: http://www.newsweek.com/id/233844 Accessed 29 April 2010.

9. Stanley Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke, directed by Stanley Kubrick, 2001: A room Odyssey (film), Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1968.

10. I discussed the date of Göbekli Tepe on site with Prof. Schmidt. It is based not just on calibrated radiocarbon dates of circa 9000 BCE or previously on necessary remains found in the material used to fill the website (these dates would be later on than the actual occupation of the site), but additionally dates of circa 8000-7500 BCE ~ above pedogenic lead carbonate coatings and also micro-stalactites on wall stones (see Peters and also Schmidt, 2004, p. 182 ). These carbonate coatings and also micro-stalactites would have created only after the burial of the site and after soil development began, hence indicating that the website itself was hidden by circa 8000 BCE, and also possibly much earlier.

11. Quoted by Patrick Symmes in Newsweek .

12. Patrick Symmes

13. Giulio Magli, “On the possible discovery of precessional results in old astronomy,” short article from 2004 posted at: http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0407/0407108.pdf Accessed 17 June 2010; Giulio Magli, Mysteries and Discoveries that Archaeoastronomy: from Giza to Easter Island, new York: Copernicus Books, 2009.

14. Watch for instance, J. Norman Lockyer, The Dawn that Astronomy, brand-new York: Macmillan, 1894 (reprinted, v a preface by Giorgio de Santillana, Cambridge, Mass.: the Press, 1964); Giorgio de Santillana and also Hertha von Dechend, Hamlet’s Mill: one Essay on Myth and also the frame of Time, Boston: Gambit, 1969.

15. The main, and also older, part of Göbekli Tepe under conversation in this write-up belongs come Schmidt’s layer III; the younger and also smaller pillars and structures belong come Schmidt’s class II.

16. These dimensions are only approximate, and also are based upon the arrangement of Göbekli Tepe on page 186 of Peters and Schmidt, 2004 .

17. Alignments disputed here were established using the computer system program “Starry Night agree 4.5” (Toronto: room Holding Company, 2003).

18. Christopher Seddon, “Ice age Star Maps?” short article dated 1 January 2008, posted at http://www.christopherseddon.com/2008/01/ice-age-star-maps.html Accessed 5 June 2010; Gary D. Thompson, “Paleolithic european Constellations - star maps in Lascaux cave in France 16,500-13,000 B.C.”, write-up dated 2001-2007, post at: http://www.mazzaroth.com/ChapterOne/LascauxCave.htm Accessed 5 June 2010; David Whitehouse, “Ice age star map discovered”, short article dated 9 august 2000, posted at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/871930.stm Accessed 5 June 2010.

19. David Whitehouse, “ ‘Oldest star chart’ found”, write-up dated 21 January 2003, posted at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2679675.stm Accessed 5 June 2010.

20. Robert M. Schoch, “An old Warning, A worldwide Message, indigenous the finish of the Last ice cream Age”, brand-new Dawn, July-August 2010, pp. 15-21.

21. Anthony L. Peratt, “Characteristics for the incident of a High-Current, Z-Pinch Aurora as recorded in Antiquity”, academy of Electrical and also Electronics engineers Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1192-1214 (December 2003); Anthony L. Peratt, man McGovern, Alfred H. Qöyawayma, Marinus Anthony valve der Sluijs, and Mathias G. Peratt, “Characteristics for the incident of a High-Current, Z-Pinch Aurora as taped in Antiquity component II: Directionality and also Source”, institute of Electrical and also Electronics engineers Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 778-807 (August 2007); A. L. Peratt and also W. F. Yao, “Evidence because that an extreme Solar eight in Prehistory”, Physica Scripta (The imperial Swedish Academy of Sciences), 13 pages (December 2008).

22. See keep in mind 2.

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Robert Schoch in ~ Göbekli Tepe, 2010. Photo by Catherine Ulissey


A permanent faculty member in ~ Boston University due to the fact that 1984, Dr. Schoch deserve his Ph.D. (1983) in Geology and Geophysics in ~ Yale University. In the beforehand 1990s, Dr. Schoch’s geological analyses that the great Sphinx demonstrated the the frostbite is thousands of years older 보다 the standard dating the 2500 BCE, pass him global fame and recognition. His assertion that there was an previously cycle that civilization before civilization is supposed to have existed, though attacked by plenty of members that the Egyptological and also archaeological establishments, has stood the test of time. Stunning confirmation of Dr. Schoch’s view has come v the exploration of the highly innovative 12,000-year-old site of Göbekli Tepe in southeastern Turkey. In recent years, further data and also reanalysis the his previous work has led Dr. Schoch come conclude that the origins of the Sphinx go ago millennia additional than he very first proposed; the now places the beginnings of the good Sphinx at about 12,000 year ago. Dr. Schoch is the writer of countless books and articles, both academic and popular, consisting of Forgotten Civilization: The duty of Solar Outbursts in ours Past and Future (Inner Traditions, 2012). He has reached audiences around the people via television, radio, live presentations, and also the internet (the Emmy-winning documentary The an enig of the Sphinx, which an initial aired on NBC, remains a favorite amongst audiences). In recognition of his scientific contributions to the research of ancient civilizations, in 2014 Dr. Schoch was awarded the title of Honorary Professor the the Nikola Vaptsarov naval Academy in Varna, Bulgaria. Dr. Schoch’s website is: www.derekwadsworth.com