"The Sun, through all the planets revolving about it, and depending ~ above it, have the right to still ripen a bunch that grapes as though it had nothing else in the world to do." ~ Galileo

You are watching: Nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium occurs in the

Mass: 1.989x1030 kg Radius: 695,000 kilometres (equator) median Density: 1.410 gm/cm3 Rotation Period: 25 - 36 days escape Velocity: 618.02 km/sec Luminosity: 3.839 x 1026 watts size (Vo): -26.8 surface Temp: 5,780 K (mean) Age: 4.5 billion year

In the core of the sunlight hydrogen is gift converted right into helium. This is referred to as nuclear fusion. It takes 4 hydrogen atoms to fuse into each helium atom. Throughout the process some of the massive is converted into energy. fixed of 4 H atoms: 4.03130 AMU massive of 1 that atom: 4.00268 AMU 1 atom Mass Unit (AMU) equates to 1.67x10-27kgs The difference between the massive of 4 H atoms and 1 the atom is 0.02862 AMU which is only 0.71% of the initial mass. This small portion of the mass is converted into energy. If 4 grams (1/8 ounce) that H are converted to He, just 2.8x10-3 grams that the fixed is converted to energy: exactly how much energy is generated from converting together a tiny amount of mass? We have the right to calculate by using Einstein"s famous formula. E = mc2 E = (2.8x10-3 grams) x c2 E = (2.8x10-6 kgs) x (3x108m/sec)2 E = 2.6x1011 joules Enough energy to keep a 60-watt light bulb shining for over 100 years! The sunlight has various layers with various properties, these layers space composed of product that is about 75% hydrogen and 25% helium by mass. Just put, the sun is a an excellent ball that gas, hot enough to glow in every tier. In the an extremely innermost component of the Sun, referred to as its core, the temperature is about 15 million Kelvins, the density is 150 times the of water, and the push is end 200 billion times greater than atmospheric pressure here on Earth. This heavy, sweltering place is whereby the Sun"s energy is produced via a procedure known as thermonuclear fusion. While blend is complicated to mimic top top Earth, the core of the Sun and also other stars is a perfect environment for it. Here, the temperatures space high enough for hydrogen nuclei come smash together and form helium nuclei, releasing tremendous quantities of energy in assorted forms. Energy created in the form of irradiate keeps bouncing roughly inside the Sun, together though the sunlight were made completely of mirrors. A particle of light deserve to take more than 30,000 year to with the surface and also escape! power in the form of little particles dubbed neutrinos, however, deserve to travel directly out that the Sun and into the Solar System. Neutrino observatories on planet measure the continuous wash of these tiny, fast-moving particles. The evident visual magnitude of the sun is -26.8, making that appear around 10 exchange rate (10,000,000,000) times together bright together the following brightest star, Sirius. The absolute magnitude the the Sun, the magnitude it would have actually at a street of 10 parsec or 32.6 irradiate years, is +4.8. Amongst the brightest stars we can see v the naked eye, over there is only one, alpha Centauri, with a similar absolute magnitude to the Sun. Many of the rest are intrinsically much brighter. light takes around 500 seconds (8 1/3 minutes) to take trip from the sun to the Earth. The typical distance come the earth from the center of the sunlight is around 149,000,000 km, or 93,000,000 miles; a distance recognized as an huge unit (AU). There space over 63,000 AU in 1 irradiate year. 1 AU is about 0.000016 irradiate year. The nearest star, alpha Centauri, is 4.3 irradiate years distant, or about 280,000 AU.

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task on the solar surface, photo by Brad Snowder.