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Born:1268FontainebleauFrance...(Show more)Died:November 29, 1314 (aged 46)FontainebleauFrance...(Show more)Title / Office:king (1285-1314), France...(Show more)House / Dynasty:Capetian dynasty...(Show more)Notable family Members:spouse Joan Idaughter Isabella of France...(Show more)
Philip IV, byname Philip the Fair, French Philippe le Bel, (born 1268, Fontainebleau, France—died November 29, 1314, Fontainebleau), king of France indigenous 1285 to 1314 (and of Navarre, as Philip I, native 1284 to 1305, judgment jointly v his wife, Joan i of Navarre). His lengthy struggle through the roman inn papacy ended with the transfer of the Curia to Avignon, France (beginning the so-called Babylonian Captivity, 1309–77). He likewise secured French imperial power by wars on barons and neighbours and by border of feudal usages. His 3 sons to be successively emperors of France: luigi X, Philip V, and also Charles IV.
Born at Fontainebleau while his grandfather was tho ruling, Philip, the second son the Philip III (the Bold) and grandson the St. Louis (Louis IX), was no yet three as soon as his mother, Isabella the Aragon, died on she return native the Crusade on i beg your pardon Louis IX had perished. The motherless Philip and also his 3 brothers saw little of your father, who, stricken by Isabella’s death, threw himself right into campaigning and administrative affairs. His troubled childhood and also the collection of blows the suffered define in some measure the conflicting elements in his adult personality. In 1274 his father married Marie de Brabant, a beautiful and cultivated woman, and, with her come at court, intrigue began to flourish. In the very same year, the two-year-old Joan, heiress that Champagne and Navarre, was invited as a refugee. Reared through the imperial children, she would, when she to be 12, become the bride that Philip the Fair.
In 1276 Philip’s elder brother, Louis, died, and the shock of this event, which suddenly made Philip heir come the kingdom, was compounded through persistent rumours of poisoning and also suspicions that Philip’s stepmother plan to watch Isabella’s staying sons destroyed. Vague allegations to be circulated that Louis’s death was connected with specific unspecified “unnatural acts” that his father. This rumours, never ever satisfactorily put to rest, in addition to the unexpected change in Philip’s fortunes, apparently served to arouse in that feelings the insecurity and also mistrust.
Consequently, Philip turned elsewhere in find of a version for his very own conduct. He found it in luigi IX, whose memory was progressively venerated as the variety of miracles attributed come him mounted. Reports of Louis’s exacting requirements of rulership and also his saintly virtues to be reinforced by the precepts of the spiritual advisers that surrounded the adolescent Philip. A more self-confident person could have to be able come discriminate realistically amongst the occasionally artificially exaggeration stories and also the utopian ideals. Philip, however, became convinced that it to be his God-given duty to obtain the lofty objectives of his grandfather.
When Philip to be 16, he was knighted and also married to Joan that Navarre. In 1285 that accompanied his father to the south on a campaign to install Philip’s brother Charles on the throne of Aragon. He had actually no sympathy through the enterprise, however, which was backed by his stepmother and also aimed against the king of Aragon, his so late mother’s brother. Once his father died in October 1285, Philip instantly abandoned the venture.
Wars with England and Flanders
In the first years the Philip’s power the Aragonese affair to be settled, and Philip intensified his predecessors’ initiatives to reform and also rationalize the management of the realm. He dispatched investigators come inquire right into the command of royal officials and also into infringements upon royal prerogatives. Philip persisted in seeking together reforms, i m sorry strengthened the monarchy’s position but angered the nobles, townsmen, and ecclesiastics who had actually profited from the laxer policies of earlier kings.
War v England began in 1294, initiating a 10-year duration of problem that severely strained Philip’s resources. There had been part naval clashes, yet full-scale war could well have been avoided had actually not Philip, probably in a right of youthful bravado, chose to show his power over brothers mighty Edward I, his vassal, for manage of the duchy the Gascony. Philip’s to win in 1297 may have actually satisfied his ambitions, but they lugged no territorial gain, for the countless lands the Philip had seized were returned. Nevertheless, the war was significant. First, the peace treaty that 1303 stipulated that Philip’s daughter Isabella need to marry the future Edward II that England—an alliance that resulted in years the peace between the two kingdoms. Second, during the war, Philip’s vassal male of Dampierre, counting of Flanders, had actually allied himself with Edward I, a relocate that Philip taken into consideration to be basic treachery and also that caused a breach in between the two that persisted until long after Philip’s death.
Before the peace, yet after fighting with England had ceased, Philip make a relocate to crush the Flemish, just to see a organize of his nobles loss at the battle of the gold Spurs in 1302. This stunning loss was redeemed 2 years later at Mons-en-Pévèle, wherein Philip confirmed exceptional an individual courage. Finally, in 1305, Philip forced Flanders to expropriate a harsh tranquility treaty that exacted heavy reparations and humiliating penalties.
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In jae won the an extensive effort versus Flanders, Philip had actually held assemblies and also had bartered privileges and also promises of revolutionary for support in the war. Most important, in abandoning the building taxes that earlier had been levied because that defense, he imposed the principle that all need to fight to safeguard France however might purchase exemption if they wished. This successful policy was later employed as a consistent wartime expedient through the French monarchy.