Carbon atoms in acetyl CoA formation and the citric acid cycle throughout acetyl CoA formation and also the citric mountain cycle, every one of the carbon atom that get in cellular respiration in the glucose molecule room released in the kind of CO2. Use this diagram to track the carbon-containing compounds the play a duty in these 2 stages.

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Net redox reaction in acetyl CoA formation and also the citric mountain cycle.In the sequential reactions of acetyl CoA formation and the citric mountain cycle, pyruvate (the output from glycolysis) is totally oxidized, and also the electrons created from this oxidation room passed on to two types of electron acceptors.
Why is the citric mountain cycle a cyclic pathway fairly than a straight pathway? a. An ext ATP is created per CO2 exit in cyclic procedures than in linear processes.b. That is much easier to eliminate electrons and produce CO2 indigenous compounds with 3 or more carbon atoms 보다 from a two-carbon link such together acetyl CoA.c. Oxidation reactions that simultaneously create CO2 and NADH take place only in cyclic processes.d. Cyclic processes, such as the citric acid cycle, need a different mechanism that ATP synthesis than linear processes, such together glycolysis.
b. The is much easier to eliminate electrons and also produce CO2 indigenous compounds with three or an ext carbon atoms 보다 from a two-carbon link such together acetyl CoA.Although that is feasible to oxidize the two-carbon acetyl group of acetyl CoA to two molecules that CO2, that is lot more complicated than adding the acetyl team to a four-carbon mountain to type a six-carbon acid (citrate). Citrate can then it is in oxidized sequentially to release two molecules that CO2.
In mitochondrial electron transport, what is the direct role of O2?In mitochondrial electron transport, what is the direct function of O2?a. Come oxidize NADH and also FADH2 from glycolysis, acetyl CoA formation, and also the citric mountain cycleb. To function as the last electron acceptor in the electron transfer chainc. To carry out the driving pressure for the manufacturing of a proton gradientd. To provide the driving force for the synthesis of ATP from ADP and also Pi
b. To duty as the last electron agree in the electron deliver chainThe only ar that O2 participates in to move respiration is at the finish of the electron transfer chain, as the final electron acceptor. Oxygen"s high affinity because that electrons ensures its success in this role. Its contributions to driving electron transport, forming a proton gradient, and also synthesizing ATP are all indirect impacts of its duty as the terminal electron acceptor.
How would anaerobic problems (when no O2 is present) influence the rate of electron transport and ATP production during oxidative phosphorylation? (Note the you need to not consider the impact on ATP synthetic in glycolysis or the citric acid cycle.)a. Electron transfer would it is in unaffected but ATP synthesis would stop.b. Electron carry would stop yet ATP synthesis would certainly be unaffected.c. Both electron transport and ATP synthesis would stop.d. No electron carry nor ATP synthesis would certainly be affected.
c. Both electron transport and ATP synthesis would stop.Oxygen plays an essential role in cellular respiration due to the fact that it is the final electron acceptor because that the whole process. There is no O2, mitochondria are unable to oxidize the NADH and FADH2 developed in the first three actions of cellular respiration, and also thus cannot make any type of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, without O2 the mitochondria can not oxidize the NADH and FADH2 earlier to NAD+ and FAD, i beg your pardon are required as inputs come the very first three step of moving respiration.
Which statement finest explains why much more ATP is made per molecule that NADH 보다 per molecule that FADH2?Which statement ideal explains why an ext ATP is made every molecule of NADH than per molecule the FADH2?a. There is much more NADH than FADH2 produced every glucose that enters cellular respiration.b. FADH2 is made just in the citric acid cycle if NADH is make in glycolysis, acetyl CoA formation, and the citric acid cycle.c. The H+ gradient do from electron transport using NADH is located in a different part of the mitochondrion 보다 the H+ gradient made making use of FADH2.d. Fewer protons space pumped across the inside mitochondrial membrane once FADH2 is the electron donor than when NADH is the electron donor.e. That takes more energy to make ATP from ADP and also Pi utilizing FADH2 than using NADH.
d. Under protons are pumped throughout the inner mitochondrial membrane as soon as FADH2 is the electron donor than when NADH is the electron donor.Electrons acquired from the oxidation that FADH2 enter the electron transport chain at complicated II, farther under the chain 보다 electrons indigenous NADH (which enter at complicated I). This results in fewer H+ ions being pumped throughout the membrane because that FADH2 compared to NADH, as this diagram shows. Thus, an ext ATP can be developed per NADH than FADH2.
The result of gramicidin ~ above oxidative phosphorylation:Sort the labels into the correct bin follow to the result that gramicidin would have on each process.
remains the same: proton pumping rate, electron transport rate, rate of oxygen uptakedecreases (or goes come zero): price of ATP synthesis, size of the proton gradientGramicidin reasons membranes to become really leaky come protons, so the a proton gradient cannot be maintained and also ATP synthetic stops. However, the leakiness the the membrane has no result on the capability of electron transfer to pump protons. Thus, the prices of proton pumping, electron transport, and oxygen uptake remain unchanged.
The combination stages of to move respiration:The four stages of moving respiration execute not function independently. Instead, they space coupled together because one or an ext outputs native one stage attributes as an entry to another stage. The coupling works in both directions, as indicated by the arrows in the diagram below. In this activity, you will identify the compound that couple the step of to move respiration. Traction the brand on the left onto the diagram to recognize the compound that couple each stage. Labels might be offered once, much more than once, or not at all.
a. Pyruvateb. NADHc. NAD+d. NADHe. NAD+The main coupling amongst the step of cellular respiration is achieved by NAD+ and also NADH. In the very first three stages, NAD+ accepts electron from the oxidation of glucose, pyruvate, and also acetyl CoA. The NADH created in this redox reactions then gets oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation, regenerating the NAD+ essential for the previously stages.
Anaerobic conditions and acetyl CoA formation:Under anaerobic conditions (a absence of oxygen), the counter of pyruvate come acetyl CoA stops.Which of these statements is the exactly explanation for this observation?a. Oxygen is an input to acetyl CoA formation.b. In the lack of oxygen, electron carry stops. NADH is no longer converted to NAD+, i beg your pardon is necessary for the very first three step of cellular respiration.c. ATP is needed to convert pyruvate to acetyl CoA. There is no oxygen, no ATP have the right to be do in oxidative phosphorylation.d. Oxygen is forced to transform glucose to pyruvate in glycolysis. Without oxygen, no pyruvate have the right to be made.
b. In the absence of oxygen, electron transfer stops. NADH is no longer converted come NAD+, i beg your pardon is necessary for the very first three stages of cellular respiration.NAD+ couples oxidative phosphorylation to acetyl CoA formation. The NAD+ needed to oxidization pyruvate come acetyl CoA is developed during electron transport. There is no O2, electron deliver stops, and also the oxidation the pyruvate to acetyl CoA additionally stops because of the absence of NAD+.
Suppose the a cell"s demand for ATP unexpectedly exceeds its it is provided of ATP from cellular respiration.Which explain correctly explains how this increased need would lead to an raised rate that ATP production?a. ATP levels would loss at first, increasing the inhibition of PFK and increasing the rate of ATP production.b. ATP level would fall at first, diminish the inhibition the PFK and also increasing the price of ATP production.c. ATP level would increase at first, boosting the inhibition that PFK and increasing the price of ATP production.d. ATP level would climb at first, diminish the inhibition the PFK and also increasing the price of ATP production.
b. ATP level would loss at first, diminish the inhibition that PFK and also increasing the price of ATP production.An increased need for ATP by a cabinet will cause an initial diminish in the level of moving ATP. Lower ATP to reduce the inhibition the the PFK enzyme, thus increasing the price of glycolysis, moving respiration, and ATP production. It is the initial diminish in ATP levels that leads to boost in ATP production.
During strenuous exercise, anaerobic conditions can result if the cardiovascular system cannot it is provided oxygen fast sufficient to fulfill the demands of muscle cells. Assume the a muscle cell"s demand for ATP under anaerobic problems remains the very same as it was under aerobic conditions.What would take place to the cell"s price of glucose utilization?a. Glucose use would increase a lot.b. Glucose use would boost a little.c. Glucose utilization would stay the same.d. Glucose utilization would decrease a little.e. Glucose utilization would decrease a lot.

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a. Glucose utilization would increase a lot.ATP made throughout fermentation comes from glycolysis, i beg your pardon produces a net of only 2 ATP per glucose molecule. In contrast, aerobic moving respiration produces around 36 ATP per glucose molecule. To fulfill the exact same ATP need under anaerobic conditions as under aerobic conditions, a cell"s price of glycolysis and also glucose utilization should increase virtually 20-fold.
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