Continents were formerly in various positions on the Earth and also have shifted to their current locations over time.**Wegener believed that the continents had once been part of a supercontinent the he named Pangaea.

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Fossils of the same organisms were found on number of continents, indicating the continent were once joined.**When organisms are separated into two smaller teams by a physical obstacle (i.e., the Atlantic Ocean), then they follow various evolutionary paths. The organisms Wegener quote were similar on both continents.
Late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks regularly contain extensive coal seams that were offered to support the visibility of Pangaea. What would certainly the climate have been at that time and also at the location where the coal deposits were formed, and also what would it indicate about the continent"s previous latitude?
The climate would have been a warm, humid climate close to the Equator.**Swamp vegetation demands a lot of moisture and plenty of warmth temperatures come thrive. The problems would have been (and space today) current near the Equator.
When matching up once-joined continents such as southern America and Africa, the coastlines do no fit with each other as nicely as the continent shelves. Why can this it is in the case?
The continent shelves room the edge of the continent. The coast simply reflects where the sea level is in relation to topography.**Depending ~ above sea level, continent shelves are frequently underwater and below the erosive results of tide action.
What evidence supports the the glaciers ~ above the southerly continents were once part of a single, substantial ice sheet?
Striations**Striations room scratches or grooves developed by glacial debris as it moves. The striations uncovered on the southern continents every radiate indigenous the facility of the south part of Pangaea.
Divergent boundaries are not one, smooth ridge the separation. Instead, lock are broken into a collection of segments, with different segments the fault offset from others. What features enable for the offset of divergent boundaries?
Transform faults**Transform faults account for the lateral counter that is seen along divergent boundaries.
Crustal rifting is currently arising in east Africa. Which feature would you mean to uncover there?
Normal Faults, long-wide vallies, and lava flows**All of this physical functions are proof that the see is enduring tensional tension from rifting.
Convection is a cycle of relocating material created by the climb of less-dense material and also the sinking the denser material.
In general,earthquakes and also volcanic eruptions occur at both divergent plate boundaries and also convergent key boundaries.
Volcanoes space not found at change boundaries because they do not cause changes come the pressure, temperature, or ingredient of the mantle.
The east African rift is a divergent plate boundary the is splitting the continent the Africa right into two pieces. What will eventually form around this divergent boundary?
Convergent boundary**Convergent boundaries kind as a result of compressional pressures pushing two plates together.
At a subduction zone wherein oceanic lithosphere meets continental lithosphere, which would subduct and also why?
The oceanic lithosphere would certainly subduct due to the fact that it has actually a higher density in ~ 3.0 grams every cubic centimeter.**Oceanic lithosphere, i beg your pardon is basaltic, has a greater density than continental lithosphere.
Partial melt occurs due to subduction.**Partial melting is prompted by water ns in the plate. This melts mantle material, which rises to the surface.
Plate A has oceanic lithosphere ~ above its leading edge that is 10 million years old. Plate B has oceanic lithosphere on its leading edge that is 200 million years old. I beg your pardon plate will be subducted if lock collide with each other, and why?
Plate B will certainly subduct because it is older—and therefore colder—and more dense.**The older an oceanic key is, the colder it is, make it much more dense.

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Continental plates room too buoyant come subduct.**Continental lithosphere has actually a thickness of 2.7 grams per cubic centimeter, making it unlikely to subduct.