Continents were formerly in various positions on the Earth and also have actually shifted to their present places over time.**Wegener believed that the continents had when been part of a supercontinent that he called Pangaea.

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Fossils of similar organisms were discovered on several continents, indicating the continents were once joined.**When organisms are separated right into two smaller sized groups by a physical obstacle (i.e., the Atlantic Ocean), then they follow various evolutionary courses. The organisms Wegener cited were similar on both continents.
Late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks frequently contain comprehensive coal seams that were supplied to assistance the existence of Pangaea. What would certainly the climate have gone to that time and at the place where the coal deposits were formed, and also what would certainly it show about the continent"s past latitude?
The climate would have actually been a warmth, humid climate near the Equator.**Swamp vegetation demands many moisture and also plenty of heat temperatures to thrive. The conditions would have been (and also are today) present close to the Equator.
When corresponding up once-joined continents such as South America and also Africa, the coastlines do not fit together as nicely as the continental shelves. Why can this be the case?
The continental shelves are the edges of the continent. The coast sindicate shows where the sea level is in relation to topography.**Depfinishing on sea level, continental shelves are frequently underwater and also below the erosive effects of wave activity.
What proof supports that the glaciers on the southern continents were when component of a solitary, huge ice sheet?
Striations**Striations are scratches or grooves created by glacial debris as it moves. The striations uncovered on the southerly continents all radiate from the center of the south part of Pangaea.
Divergent limits are not one, smooth ridge of separation. Instead, they are damaged into a collection of segments, through various segments of fault counter from others. What features allow for the balance out of divergent boundaries?
Transform faults**Transcreate faults account for the lateral balance out that is checked out along divergent borders.
Crustal rifting is currently occurring in East Africa. Which function would certainly you intend to find there?
Normal Faults, long-wide vallies, and also lava flows**All of these physical features are proof that the landscape is suffering tensional anxiety from rifting.
Convection is a cycle of moving product developed by the climb of less-dense material and also the sinking of denser product.
In basic,earthquakes and volcanic eruptions happen at both divergent plate borders AND convergent plate limits.
Volcanoes are not found at transform borders bereason they execute not cause changes to the push, temperature, or composition of the mantle.
The East African rift is a divergent plate boundary that is splitting the continent of Africa right into two pieces. What will inevitably form approximately this divergent boundary?
Convergent boundary**Convergent borders create as a result of compressional pressures pushing two plates together.
At a subduction zone wbelow oceanic lithospright here meets continental lithospbelow, which would subduct and why?
The oceanic lithosphere would subduct bereason it has actually a greater density at 3.0 grams per cubic centimeter.**Oceanic lithospbelow, which is basaltic, has a higher thickness than continental lithospright here.
Partial melting occurs due to subduction.**Partial melting is prompted by water loss in the plate. This melts mantle material, which rises to the surface.
Plate A has actually oceanic lithosphere on its leading edge that is 10 million years old. Plate B has oceanic lithospright here on its leading edge that is 200 million years old. Which plate will certainly be subducted if they collide with each various other, and why?
Plate B will certainly subduct because it is older—and therefore colder—and also even more thick.**The older an oceanic plate is, the colder it is, making it even more dense.

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Continental plates are also buoyant to subduct.**Continental lithospright here has a density of 2.7 grams per cubic centimeter, making it unlikely to subduct.