Musage with barbiton, Paestan red-figure lekanis Cfourth B.C., Musée du Louvre

THE MOUSAI (Muses) were the goddesses of music, song and dance, and also the resource of impetus to poets. They were likewise goddesses of understanding, who remembered all points that had actually come to pass. Later the Mousai were assigned specific creative spheres: Kalliope (Calliope), epic poetry; Kleio (Clio), history; Ourania (Urania), astronomy; Thaleia (Thalia), comedy; Melpomene, tragedy; Polymnia (Polyhymnia), religious hymns; Erato, erotic poetry; Euterpe, lyric poetry; and Terpsikhore (Terpsichore), chdental song and dance.

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In ancient Greek vase paint the Mousai were depicted as beautiful young woguys with a range of musical intruments. In later art each of the nine was assigned her very own distinctive attribute.

Tright here were two different sets of Mousai--the three or four Mousai Titanides and the three Mousai Apollonides.



<1.1> ZEUS & MNEMOSYNE (Hesiod Theogony 1 & 915, Mimnermus Frag, Alcguy Frag 8, Solon Frag 13, Apollodorus 1.13, Pausanias 1.2.5, Diodorus Siculus 4.7.1, Orphic Hymns 76 & 77, Antoninus Liberalis 9, Cicero De Natura Deorum 3.21, Arnobius 3.37)<1.2> ZEUS (Homer Odyssey 8.457, Homeric Hymns 32, et al)<1.3> MNEMOSYNE (Pindar Paean 7, Terpander Frag 4, Aristotle Frag 842, Plato Theaetetus 191c)<2.1> OURANOS & GAIA (Alcmale Frag 67, Mnaseas Frag, Diodorus Siculus 4.7.1, Scholiast on Pindar, Aronobius 3.37)<2.2> OURANOS (Mimnermos Frag, Pausanias 9.29.1, Cicero De Natura Deorum 3.21)<2.3> ZEUS & PLOUSIA (Tzetzes on Hesiod 35)<3.1> APOLLON (Eumelus Frag 35, Tzetzes on Hesiod 35)<4.1> PIEROS & ANTIOPE (Cicero De Natura Deorum 3.21, Tzetzes on Hesiod 35)


<1.1> KLEIO, EUTERPE, THALEIA, MELPOMENE, TERPSIKHORE, ERATO, POLYHYMNIA, OURANIA, KALLIOPE (Hesiod Theogony 75, Apollodorus 1.13, Diodorus Siculus 4.7.1, Orphic Hymn 76)<1.2> TERPSIKHORE, ERATO, KALLIOPE, OURANIA (Plato Phaedrus 259)<1.3> POLYMATHEIA (Plutarch Symposium 9.14)<2.1> MELETE, AOEDE, MNEME (Pausanias 9.39.3)<2.2> MELETE, AODE, ARKHE, THELXINOE (Cicero De Natura Deorum 3.21, Tzetzes on Hes. 23)<3.1> NETE, MESE, HYPATE (Plutarch Symposium 9.14)<3.2> KEPHISO, APOLLONIS, BORYSTHENIS (Eumelus Frag 35, Tzetzes)<4.1> NEILO, TRITONE, ASOPO, HEPTAPORA, AKHELOIS, TIPOPLO, RHODIA (Epicharmis, Tzetzes on Hes. 23)


Musage via box, Paestan red-figure lekanis Cfourth B.C., Musée du Louvre

MUSAE (Mousai). The Moffers, according to the earliest authors, were the inspiring goddesses of song, and, according to later on noticus, divinities presiding over the different kinds of poetry, and over the arts and also sciences. They were originally regarded as the nymphs of inspiring wells, close to which they were worshipped, and also bore different names in different places, till the Thraco-Boeotian worship of the nine Moffers spcheck out from Boeotia over other components of Greece, and also eventually became mostly established. (Respecting the Moffers conceived as nymphs watch Schol. ad Theocrit. vii. 92; Hesych. s. v. Numphê; Steph. Byz. s. v. Torrêbos ; Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. vii. 21.)

The ancestry of the Moffers is not the very same in all writers. The the majority of common notion was, that they were the daughters of Zeus and also Mnemosyne, and also born in Pieria, at the foot of Mount Olympus (Hes. Theog. 52, &c., 915; Hom. Il. ii. 491, Od. i. 10; Apollod. i. 3. § 1); but some call them the daughters of Uranus and also Gaea (Schol. ad Pind. Nem. iii. 16; Paus. ix. 29. § 2; Diod. iv. 7; Arnob. adv. Gent. iii. 37), and also others daughters of Pierus and a Pimpleian nymph, whom Cicero (De Nat. Deor. iii. 21) calls Antiope (Tzetz. ad Hes. Op. et D. p. 6; Paus. l. c.), or of Apollo, or of Zeus and Plusia, or of Zeus and also Moneta, more than likely a mere translation of Mnemosyne or Mneme, whence they are dubbed Mnemonides (Ov. Met. v. 268), or of Zeus and also Minerva (Isid. Orig. iii. 14), or finally of Aether and also Gaea. (Hygin. Fab. Praef.) Eupheme is called the nurse of the Moffers, and at the foot of Mount Helicon her statue stood beside that of Linus. (Paus. ix. 29. § 3.)

With regard to the variety of the Muses, we are informed that originally 3 were worshipped on Mount Helicon in Boeotia, namely, Melete (meditation), Mneme (memory), and also Aoede (song); and their worship and names are sassist to have been initially presented by Ephialtes and Otus. (Paus. ix. 29. § 1, &c.) Three were additionally recognised at Sicyon, wright here among them bore the name of Polymatheia (Plut. Sympos. ix. 14), and also at Delphi, wbelow their names were similar via those of the lowest, middle, and greatest chord of the lyre, viz. Nete, Mese, and also Hypate (Plut. l. c.), or Cephisso, Apollonis, and Borysthenis, which names characterise them as the daughters of Apollo. (Tzetz. l. c. ; Arnob. iii. 37; Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. vii. 21; Diod. iv. 7.) As daughters of Zeus and Plusia we find mention of four Moffers, viz. Thelxinoe (the heart delighting), Aoede (song), Arche (beginning), and Melete. (Cic., Arnob., Tzetz. ll. cc. ; Serv. ad Aen. i. 12.) Some accounts, aacquire, in which they are dubbed daughters of Pierus, cite seven Msupplies, viz. Neilo, Tritone, Asopo, Heptapora, Achelois, Tipoplo, and Rhodia (Tzetz. Arnob. ll. cc.), and others, ultimately, mention eight, which is also shelp to have actually been the number recognised at Athens. (Arnob. l. c.; Serv. ad Aen. i. 12; Plat. De Re Publ. p. 116.) At length, however, the number nine shows up to have come to be establiburned in all Greece. Homer sometimes mentions Musa just in the singular, and periodically Musae in the plural, and as soon as just (Od. xxiv. 60) he speaks of nine Msupplies, though without mentioning any of their names. Hesiod (Theog. 77. &c.) is the first that claims the names of all the nine, and also these nine names henceforth came to be established. They are Cleio, Euterpe, Thaleia, Melpomene, Terpsichore, Erato, Polymnia, Urania, and Calliope. Plutarch (l. c.) states that in some areas all nine were designated by the common name Mneiae, i. e. Remembrances.

If we currently inquire right into the notions entertained around the nature and character of the Moffers, we find that, in the Homeric poems, they are the goddesses of song and poetry, and live in Olympus. (Il. ii. 484.) There they sing the festive songs at the repasts of the immortals (Il. i. 604, Hymn. in Apoll. Pyth. 11), and at the funeral of Patroclus they sing lamentations. (Od. xxiv. 60; comp. Pind. Isthm. viii. 126.) The power which we discover many frequently assigned to them, is that of bringing prior to the mind of the mortal poet the events which he has to relate; and also that of conferring upon him the gift of song, and also of offering gracefulness to what he utters. (Il. ii. 484, 491, 761, Od. i. 1, viii. 63, &c., 481, 488; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 259.) Tbelow appears to be no reason for doubting that the earliest poets in their invocation of the Muse or Moffers were perfectly sincere, and that they actually thought in their being inspired by the goddesses; but in later on times among the Greeks and also the Romans, as well as in our very own days, the invocation of the Moffers is a mere formal imitation of the at an early stage poets. Thamyris, that presumed to excel the Mprovides, was deprived by them of the gift they had bestowed on him, and also puniburned through blindness. (Hom. Il. ii. 594, &c.; Apollod. i. 3. § 3.) The Seirens, who also ventured upon a challenge with them, were deprived of the feathers of their wings, and the Moffers themselves put them on as an ornament (Eustath. ad Hom. P. 85); and the nine daughters of Pierus, that presumed to rival the Msupplies, were metamorphosed into birds. (Anton. Lib. 9; Ov. Met. v. 300, &c.) As poets and bards obtained their power from them, they are commonly dubbed either their disciples or sons. (Hom. Od. viii. 481, Hymn. in Lun. 20 ; Hes. Theog. 22; Pind. Nem. iii.; Serv. ad Virg. Georg. ii. 476.) Therefore Linus is dubbed a child of Amphimarus and Urania (Paus. ix. 29. § 3), or of Apollo and also Calliope, or Terpsichore (Apollod. i. 3. § 2); Hyacintherefore a boy of Pierus and also Cleio (Apollod. i. 3. § 3); Orpheus a kid of Calliope or Cleio, and Thamyris a kid of Erato. These and a couple of others are the cases in which the Mprovides are defined as mothers; yet the more general concept was, that, choose various other nymphs, they were virgin divinities. Being goddesses of song, they are naturally connected with Apollo, the god of the lyre, that like them instructs the bards, and also is stated along with them also by Homer. (Il. i. 603, Od. viii. 488.) In later times Apollo is placed in very cshed connection with the Mprovides, for he is defined as the leader of the choir of the Muses by the surname Mousagetês. (Diod. i. 18.) A additionally function in the character of the Msupplies is their prophetic power, which belongs to them, partly because they were regarded as motivating nymphs, and partly because of their link with the prophetic god of Delphi. Hence, they instructed, for instance, Aristaeus in the art of prophecy. (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 512.) That dancing, too, was one of the occupations of the Moffers, might be inferred from the close connection existing among the Greeks in between music, poeattempt, and also dancing. As the motivating nymphs loved to dwell on Mount Helicon, they were normally linked through Dionysus and dramatic poetry, and also for this reason they are defined as the companions, playmates, or nurses of Dionysus.

The worship of the Msupplies points originally to Thrace and Pieria around mount Olympus, from whence it was presented into Boeotia, in such a manner that the names of mountains, grottoes, and also wells, linked with their worship, were likewise transferred from the north to the south. Near mount Helicon, Ephialtes and also Otus are sassist to have readily available the initially sacrifices to them; and also in the same location there was a sanctuary with their statues, the sacred wells Aganippe and also Hippocrene, and also on mount Leibethrion, which is connected via Helicon, tright here was a sacred grotto of the Muses. (Paus. ix. 29. § 1, &c., 30. § 1, 31. § 3; Strab. pp. 410, 471; Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. x. 11.) Pierus, a Macedonian, is shelp to have actually been the initially who presented the worship of the nine Muses, from Thrace to Thespiae, at the foot of mount Helsymbol. (Paus. ix. 29. § 2.) Tbelow they had a temple and also statues, and also the Thespians commemorated a solemn festival of the Moffers on mount Helicon, referred to as Mouseia (Paus. ix. 27. § 4, 31. § 3; Pind. Fragm. p. 656, ed. Boeckh; Diod. xvii. 16.) Mount Parnassus was likewise spiritual to them, through the Castalian spring, close to which they had a temple. (Plut. De Pyth. Orac. 17.) From Boeotia, which therefore came to be the emphasis of the worship of the nine Msupplies, it thereafter spreview right into the adjacent and more far-off components of Greece. Hence we uncover at Athens a temple of the Moffers in the Academy (Paus. i. 30. § 2); at Sparta sacrifices were offered to them before fighting a fight (iii. 17. § 5); at Troezene, wbelow their worship had actually been introduced by Ardalus, sacrifices were available to them conjointly with Hypnos, the god of sleep (Paus. iii. 31. §4 , &c.); at Corinth, Peirene, the spring of Pegasus, was spiritual to them (Pers. Sat. Prol. 4; Stat. Silv. ii. 7. 1); at Rome they had actually an altar in prevalent via Hercules, who was likewise regarded as Musagetes, and they possessed a temple at Ambracia adorned through their statues. (Plut. Quaest. Rom. 59; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 36.) The sacrifices available to them consisted of libations of water or milk, and of honey. (Schol. ad Soph. Oed. Col. 100; Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. vii. 21.) The miscellaneous surnames by which they are designated by the poets are for the a lot of component derived from the places which were spiritual to them or in which they were worshipped, while some are descriptive of the sweetness of their songs.

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In the the majority of prehistoric functions of art we uncover just 3 Moffers, and also their attributes are musical instruments, such as the flute, the lyre, or the barbiton. Later artists provided to each of the nine sisters different features and various perspectives, of which we below include a brief account. 1. Calliope, the Muse of epic poetry, shows up with a tablet and stylus, and also sometimes with a roll of paper; 2. Cleio, the Muse of history, shows up in a sitting mindset, through an open up roll of paper, or an open chest of books; 3. Euterpe, the Muse of lyric poeattempt, through a flute; 4. Melpomene, the Musage of tragedy, via a tragic mask, the club of Heracles, or a sword, her head is surrounded through vine leaves, and she wears the cothurnus; 5. Terpsichore, the Muse of chdental dance and also song, shows up via the lyre and the plectrum; 6. Erato, the Musage of erotic poetry and mimic imitation, sometimes, likewise, has the lyre; 7. Polymnia, or Polyhymnia, the Muse of the sublime hymn, generally shows up without any type of attribute, in a pensive or meditating attitude; 8. Urania, the Musage of astronomy, via a staff pointing to a globe; 9. Thaleia, the Muse of comedy and also of merry or idyllic poeattempt, appears through the comic mask, a shepherd"s staff, or a wreath of ivy. In some depictions the Msupplies are viewed via feathers on their heads, alluding to their contest through the Seirens.