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Eumaeus, Odysseus and also the dog Argos | od339gen: "A hound that lay there raised his head and pricked increase his ears, Argos, the hound of Odysseus, of the steadfast heart, whom of old he had himself bred." (Hom.Od.17.290). Bonaventura Genelli (1798 – 1868).

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The Disguised Odysseus: "Eumaeus, i hope Zeus will look ~ above you together kindly together I execute for picking the end the best part for a bad fellow prefer me."Eumaeus 1: "Eat my guest, strange man that girlfriend are, and take her pleasure of what is here now; the god will provide you together or withhold it, together in his very own mind he may wish." (Homer, Odyssey 14.440).

"Servants, once their masters are no much longer there to order castle about, have small will to perform their duties together they should. All-seeing Zeus takes half the great out of a guy on the day once he becomes a slave." (Eumaeus 1 come the disguised Odysseus. Homer, Odyssey 17.320).


Eumaeus1 was Odysseus" faithful servant and swineherd, a guy of sound principles, who never ever forgot the immortals. He obtained Odysseus in his hut as soon as after his wanderings Odysseus returned to Ithaca, and also later he aided his grasp to eliminate the SUITORS that PENELOPE, who were pestering the palace.

Prince in an additional island

According to Eumaeus1 himself, he came originally from Syria, an island over Ortygia (Delos) wherein the citizens lived a happy life, never ever spoiled by scourges, and constantly reaching Old Age. Over there Eumaeus1 led the life the a little prince, for his father to be king that the island"s two cities, gift looked after by a Phoenician nurse. His nurse betrays him come this island, states Eumaeus1, came sooner or later a gang of Phoenician sailors with your ship stored through pretty commodities, and one that them, having actually seduced the prince"s nurse, invite her come come v them earlier to she country. She gladly accepted, adding that she plan to lug away all the gold that she can lay her hands on, and as a method of payment for she passage home, she likewise offered come bring small Eumaeus1 ~ above board with her. For, she said, the little boy can fetch a fortune because that them when put up because that sale in a foreign country. Marketed in Ithaca The Phoenician traders remained for a entirety year in the island that Syria, and when they had actually bought their homeward freight and were all set to sail, the nurse take it the gold and the child and also came top top board. However, while lock still were in the open sea, the treacherous maid fell sick and died, and also Eumaeus1 was left alone until the delivery arrived to Ithaca wherein Odysseus" dad Laertes to buy him. This is how Eumaeus1 involved Ithaca, and also as that was got in the home of a type master, he love Penelope, Telemachus, Odysseus, and the whole of this family an ext than his own. For he said:

"… i shall never uncover so type a master again wherever I may go, not even if I return to my parents" residence … and much as I have to like to be back in my own nation and set eyes on castle again, mine longing for them has given place in my love to overwhelming regret for the lost Odysseus." (Eumaeus1 to the disguised Odysseus. Homer, Odyssey 14.138).Brought up choose a son likewise Odysseus" mom Anticlia1 do a wide place because that Eumaeus1 in her heart, bringing the up along with her own daughter Ctimene, until this girl to be married to someone in Same, in the island that Cephallenia. It was then that Anticlia1 fitted Eumaeus1 in brand-new clothes, and also packed him turn off to the farm. Hard working swineherd having actually thus come to be the family"s swineherd, Eumaeus1 supplied to take it the pets to those pastures where they might find the ideal fodder, keeping the pigs in ~ night in a large farmyard surrounding by high walls of stone, i beg your pardon he had actually himself built. And also being a thorough kind of person, he fence the entirety length of the walls through a stockade do of oak. Within the yard, which was additionally protected by fierce dogs, there to be twelve sties because that the pigs come rest; yet the boars, i m sorry at the moment of Odysseus" return had actually been decimated by the SUITORS the PENELOPE, lay exterior the yard. They can at night be defended by Eumaeus1 himself, who, wrapped in a special cloak, invested the night outside, armed with a sword and a javelin to store intruders away. Eumaeus1 offered to take his meals and rest in a cabin, and also was otherwise helped by 4 laborers, one of which was Mesaulius, who Eumaeus1 had actually bought indigenous the Taphian traders with his own resources. Pension plan in jeopardy having lived thus for many years, and being a loyal servant and also a hard worker, Eumaeus1 might hope to be pensioned off, and also receive indigenous his grasp Odysseus a same reward in the form of a little of land, a cottage, and an attractive wife. Yet life not constantly runs smoothly, and the palace"s finances gift severely undermined through the SUITORS of PENELOPE, Eumaeus1 witnessed his future in jeopardy. And yet that was forced to slaughter the best animals and send them to these glutton scoundrels, that were never content with simply one or two at a time. And also forced were also the other Ithacan herdsmen; for additionally them had actually to select day by job their best goat, and drive it in for the SUITORS to guzzle on. So, gift disgusted through the entirety state of affairs in Ithaca, Eumaeus1 had actually lived the recent years together a hermit, just with his swine, and never coming to the city and also the royal residence unless invite by Penelope. The SUITORS the PENELOPE currently the SUITORS to be not simply unwanted guests consuming Odysseus" estate. This is undoubtedly what they were at the beginning. But later, as their outrageous habits met resistance indigenous young Telemachus, lock turned slowly into a seditious group, plotting against the life of Odysseus" son, and threatening to death the king himself, if ever before he returned. Whether they to be or not completely aware of their escalation, which adjusted them from pestering youths right into criminals, turned come be irrelevant for Odysseus and his own people, who, at the moment of retaliation, mainly considered the consequences of the SUITORS" actions. Obtain his disguised master during the twenty year the his absence, Odysseus came down on Ithaca. Disguised as an old beggar, and also following Athena"s instructions, the turned his ago on the coast, and also going through woods and also hills, came to the hut of Eumaeus1. Over there he was kindly received by the swineherd, who, there is no recognizing his master, invited the beggar to join him in his meal, putting bread and wine in front of him, and slaughtering a couple of young porkers because that the visitor"s sake. And when Odysseus thanked him, stated Eumaeus1:

"… my conscience would not let me rotate away a stranger who was also meaner 보다 you, because that strangers and beggars every come in Zeus" surname …" (Eumaeus1 come the disguised Odysseus. Homer, Odyssey 14.56).Beggar and also swineherd tell stories to every other throughout the talk, Eumaeus1 called Odysseus" the story of his life, and Odysseus, that was still play the function of the beggar, told him what appeared to be a bunch that lies. Yet the swineherd was no unaware the the opportunity of his guest lying; for he knew that:

"Beggars in require of sustenance tell lies, and are unwilling to offer a true story."(Eumaeus1 come the disguised Odysseus. Homer, Odyssey 14.124).

This is why the is clear the his favors rest more, as he self explained, top top the respect he had actually for the regulations of hospitality and also the pity the felt because that the stranger, 보다 on stories meant to touch his heart. Telemachus sends out Eumaeus1 to the royal residence While Odysseus was continuing to be at Eumaeus1"s house, his boy Telemachus reverted from Pylos and Sparta, wherein he had been searching for news around his father, disembarking in the island in ~ the very first point he reached. His ship had just eluded the ambush that the SUITORS had collection out at sea, and also when Telemachus, adhering to Athena"s instructions, pertained to Eumaeus1"s hut, he sent the swineherd to walk quickly and also tell his mommy Penelope the she had him safely back from Pylos. And also when Eumaeus1 left the farm yard on his errand, Odysseus revealed self to his son; and from that minute father and son began to arrangement the downfall and death the the SUITORS that PENELOPE. Eumaeus1 to be not very first to deliver the message; for a messenger indigenous Telemachus" crew had actually been sent running off to the palace, and also conveyed the first. Yet on his method back, having actually climbed up the hills above the city, Eumaeus1 observed the SUITORS" delivery that, without having achieved anything, came into the harbor transporting a crowd of armed men. About begging because that meals and also not for work The work after, as Odysseus and also his son had agreed, Telemachus bade Eumaeus1 to take the beggar to the palace where he might beg for his meals. In this manner, the swineherd brought his king, who looked prefer a wretched old beggar, come the city. In their way they fell with the goatherd Melanthius2, that drove part goats because that the SUITORS, v two shepherds to aid him. And when Melanthius2 saw the couple coming along, he burst right into a torrent that injuries. Because that Melanthius2 was the sort of male fond the reproaching those who, together he said, always beg because that meals and never for work. No doubt, Melanthius2 would have been may be to give that miserable wretch an occupation, so that he could work his muscle up, staying clear of him at the exact same time that being such a killjoy at parties just by mirroring his nauseating presence. Because that such wastrels as this one never want to perform anything, however instead love come walk around and also make a living through alms. And having uttered these and also other clever thoughts, he finished his speech v the very same kind of elegance he had actually started it by landing a kick on Odysseus" hip together he happen by. Eumaeus1 curses the goatherd Now, this type of cheap principles with i beg your pardon hypocrisy and fraud disguise themselves, to be just about nothing because that Eumaeus1, who might see v it. And also that is why he called upon the gods, cursed the goatherd, and prayed for Odysseus" return so that he would certainly send paris Melanthius2"s newly obtained insolent manners; because that this goatherd cared in truth nothing because that Odysseus" herds, and also went around in the city leaving bad shepherds to ruin the king"s flocks. This kind of invocation have actually of course no impact upon an impudent mental such together Melanthius2"s; and that is why, on hear Eumaeus1"s speech, that retorted with an ext insults, adding that the wished Telemachus" death, sure as he was the his father"s homecoming would never ever come about. And this said, he left to sign up with the SUITORS, whom he admired and with who he mutual the meals. The Suitor Antinous2 scolds the swineherd Eumaeus1 and Odysseus arrived to the palace soon after the goatherd, and also he who had been wandering for 20 years started to go the rounds and also beg from every of the SUITORS in his very own home. But beggars are not welcome amongst merry banqueters, and also that is why this asked each other who the was and whence he came; and also when they learned native the goatherd Melanthius2 that the swineherd had carried him, the suitor Antinous2 took the opportunity to scold Eumaeus1, saying:

"O most identified swineherd, why walk you lug this fellow to the city? execute we not already have tramps in plenty to afflict us and also ruin our dinners? space you dissatisfied with the numbers collected here come eat her master"s food the you have to invite this one also?" (Antinous2 to Eumaeus1. Homer, Odyssey 17.375).Who space invited and who not currently Eumaeus1, who was complying with Telemachus" instructions and could not, in any kind of case, have invited Odysseus, stated with his own words what is well-known of all:

"Who would certainly take it on himself to push hospitality ~ above a wandering stranger, uneven he were some worker for the public good, a prophet, a physician, a skilled workman, or inspired minstrel …? These room the men who almost everywhere the endless planet are invited. Yet nobody would ask in a beggar come eat him out of house and home." (Eumaeus1 to Antinous2. Homer, Odyssey 17.382).The beggar continues to be anyway in spite of the several problems that the beggar"s visibility caused, Odysseus do a location for himself in the palace, and it to be Eumaeus1 that arranged a meeting between the king and also Penelope. Because that she, seeing that the stranger had traveled far, was anxious to ask the questions around her husband. The fateful bow shows up On the 2nd day the Odysseus" arrival, Penelope chose to face the SUITORS v the bow the was an alleged to test your skill, promising the she would certainly marry whoever among them who showed to it is in the handiest at stringing the bow and shooting the marks. Having actually then claimed this to the SUITORS, she called Eumaeus1 to hand over the bow come them. Eumaeus1 embraced it in tears and also put it before the SUITORS, and additionally Philoetius wept as soon as he observed Odysseus" bow. Because that these faithful servants knew nothing yet of what your master had schemed with his son, even less the he was alive and near. No one did they doubt that the figure of the bow signal the downfall of the SUITORS, and not, as it seemed to them, the definitive accept of Odysseus" death. Yet the suitor Antinous2 was no in a sentimental mood; and that is why the scolded both Eumaeus1 and also Philoetius, saying:

"You foolish yokels … negative wretches, why room you streaming tears, snivelling and also upsetting her mistress, together though the lose of she beloved husband weren"t enough …" (Antinous2 to Eumaeus1 and also Philoetius. Homer, Odyssey 21.85).Difficult to bending on a holiday The SUITORS made decision then to shot the bow from left come right, the way the alcohol went round. The very first to make the attempt to be Liodes, and when that failed he claimed that this bow would break the heart and also be the fatality of many; and as the happens, reality may come out of any kind of mouth. Climate the rest of the SUITORS notified Melanthius2 come grease and also thaw the bow before they do the efforts it, and also when additionally Eurymachus2 failed, Antinous2 proposed to postpone the test. Because that this day, gift the vacation of the archer god Apollo, was not time, the argued, to bend bows. Odysseus reveals himself to the swineherd and also the cowman In the meantime, Eumaeus1 and the cowman Philoetius slipped the end of the palace, and Odysseus complied with them. Having called them out ,the king tested their loyalty, and also when he was reassured of your feelings the revealed self to them, reflecting his famed scar. Then, ~ explaining his plan and also instructing them, the told lock to go back to the palace. Argument around the bow once the 3 came back, Odysseus asked the SUITORS to let him test the bow, no to success the lady, yet for the sake of testing. This was, as the SUITORS experienced it, a preposterous idea, and also it to be evidently wine there is no moderation, castle said, what had caused the beggar to lose all feeling of proportion, making him great to complete with his betters. Queen Penelope reproached then the SUITORS for the meanness they showed to every who concerned her house, yet Telemachus, placing an end to the argument, said:

"My mother, no Achaean man has more authority end this bow 보다 I, to provide or withhold, in ~ my pleasure." (Telemachus to Penelope. Homer, Odyssey 21.344).Eumaeus1 required to pick In the at the same time Eumaeus1, following the instructions the Odysseus had provided him moments earlier outside the palace, choose up the bow and was taking it follow me to offer it come his master. But suddenly the SUITORS witnessed him and yelled at him:

"Where room you acquisition the bow, wretched swineherd and vagabond? If we might have our way, the really dogs you have actually bred would certainly tear you come pieces, the end there amongst your pigs were no one goes." (The SUITORS come Eumaeus1. Homer, Odyssey 21.362).

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And as servants space not supplied to oppose noblemen, Eumaeus1, frightened by the crowd of upset young men, put the bow back where it had been. However, Telemachus would certainly not permit now any hesitations, and forcing the swineherd to choose sides, that threatened:

"Forward there with the bow, old fellow! You"ll soon discover that friend can"t obey us all. Take care I don"t chase you increase the fields with a shower head of stones." (Telemachus to Eumaeus1. Homer, Odyssey 21.369).End that the SUITORS The SUITORS, who were an ext aware of the entertaining value of points than of their meaning, laughed every they might at Telemachus" outburst, disregarding the truth that now the swineherd was no obeying them any type of more, but instead, doing as Telemachus had actually demanded, lugged the bow under the room to Odysseus. This is exactly how Odysseus obtained the bow, and also stringing it without initiative he shot all the marks. And also without wasting any time, he went for one more target and shot the suitor Antinous2 dead. The SUITORS, quiet deluded, believed that he had killed your friend by accident, however Odysseus, revealing himself and also refusing all commitment with his enemies, started shooting at the rest of them. In the fight that ensued, no one amongst the SUITORS survived, and also it to be Eumaeus1 that, having actually spied the goatherd Melanthius2 when he saw the store-room come fetch a pack of armour for the SUITORS, impede him come fetch them, tie him through a rope. As soon as the battle was over, Odysseus inquiry his nurse Euryclia which among the fifty women-servants in the palace had actually been disloyal. These to be ordered come clean the battlefield, removed the body of the slain and washing tables and also chairs. And also when the whole house was again in order, Telemachus, Philoetius and also Eumaeus1 took the ladies who had actually betrayed your king come the courtyard, and hanged them. And also they likewise killed the disloyal servant and goatherd Melanthius2, ~ slicing his nose and ears off, ripping far his privy components as raw meat for the dogs, and also lopping turn off his hands and feet. Epilogue This is what has actually been told about Eumaeus1, top top whom liberty was bestowed as soon as Telemachus ruled Ithaca. His death has never ever been reported.Eumaeus2 was a Trojan warrior who dropped at Troy killed by Diomedes2.