ReportNew 2020 census results show increased diversity against decade-long declines in America’s white and youth populationsWilliam H. FreyFriday, august 13, 2021


The very first release of race-ethnic statistics from the 2020 census makes plain that America’s “diversity explosion” is continuing, albeit in the context of slower national growth, especially among the youth. The new numbers show that, for the first time, there to be a decade-long loss in the variety of white american who perform not identify with other racial and ethnic groups. This means that all of the country 2010-to-2020 growth is attributable to people of color—those identifying as Latino or Hispanic, Black, asian American, indigenous Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, indigenous American, and also as 2 or much more races.1 Together, these groups now comprise more than 40% the the U.S. Population.

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William H. Frey

Senior fellow - Metropolitan plan Program

While formerly released 2020 census results shown a significant slowdown in national populace growth, the brand-new release shows that both slow growth and increased diversity are specifically evident among the young. Between 2010 and 2020, the nation’s under-age-18 population registered an absolute decrease of much more than 1 million. This result from a significant loss in the white youth population that was not completely countered by benefit in various other racial and ethnic groups. As a result, white americans now consist of less than half of the country under-age-18 population.

These statistics, exit as part of the Census Bureau’s redistricting file, reveal variations in such patterns throughout states. Thus, castle emphasize the prominence of different racial and also ethnic team populations in accountancy for each area’s growth or decline. Specifically noteworthy is the dominance of Latino or hispanic contributions to growth in places that otherwise might have lost populace during the 2010s.

The past decade saw slower growth and also white population loss

The country 2010-to-2020 development rate of 7.4% was lower than any type of decade because the 1930s. So the is not surprising that the development rates of some racial and ethnic groups additionally declined contrasted to the ahead decade. This is especially the instance for Latino or spain Americans, in ~ 23%—down native 43% in 2000 come 2010 (download Table A). This has much to do with the decade’s downturns in fertility and also immigration; the former due to the economic slowdown in the consequences of the good Recession and the latter due both to a sagging economic situation in the early on 2010s and restrictive immigrant in the later part of the decade.

Yet many notable is the small decline in white population—the an initial in any kind of census since 1790. During much the the country history, white population growth mirrored the national development rate, including a considerable slowdown during the great Depression. Yet, because the 1970s, white populace growth has shown continued declines—plummeting to simply 1.2% in 2000 to 2010 and now to a -2.6% lose (or end 5 million people) for the 2010s.

In addition to reduced fertility and also immigration, much of this lose is attributable to the ongoing aging the the white population. Under births and an ext deaths brought about a organic decrease (more deaths 보다 births) because that the 2010s decade, even prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, the climb of multiracial marriages has actually led to rise in the variety of young world who determine as combined race quite than white alone. The brand-new census results likewise show a considerable rise in the number of Americans that indicated belonging to two or an ext racial groups.

These shifts have led come a instance in which various other nonwhite race and ethnic groups accounted for all of the 2010-to-2020 gains in the U.S. Population. The biggest contributions come from Latino or hispanic Americans, at 11.6 million—representing roughly fifty percent of the nation’s full decade acquire of 22.7 million. Asian Americans and persons identifying as 2 or much more races were likewise a big contributors to the total decade populace gain.

Although 35 says registered white populace losses over the decade, just three of those (Illinois, Mississippi, and West Virginia) showed total populace declines. In the staying states (including California, brand-new York, brand-new Jersey, and also Massachusetts), nonwhite race and ethnic teams drove every one of the 2010s growth. A good example is California, which led the country in white populace losses (1.2 million), but benefitted from large Latino or spain gains (1.5 million) and also Asian American benefit (1.2 million). In addition in every one of the states that obtained white population over the decade, their an unified nonwhite populations added to over half of your growth. (Washington, D.C., where white populace growth dominated, differs from these.) amongst all says plus Washington, D.C., Latino or spain Americans contributed to fifty percent or an ext of 2010-to-2020 profit in 22 of them (download Table B).

White populace declines to be pervasive across big parts of the nation, including 61 that the 100 biggest metropolitan areas; 196 that the 319 urban over 100,000 population; and 2,458 that the nation’s 3,100-plus counties. Yet fewer the these locations experienced in its entirety population casualty (three big metro areas, 37 large cities, and also 1,650 counties) because their white accident were more than countered by benefit from other racial and ethnic groups

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More than two-fifths of americans now determine as people of color

One diversity milestone that was completed with the 2020 census number is the a considerable plurality (more 보다 40%) of americans now determine as one or more racial and also ethnic groups.

The previous several censuses have shown increased racial and ethnic diversity among the U.S. Population. In 1980, white inhabitants comprised virtually 80% of the nationwide population, v Black residents accounting for 11.5%, and Latino or Hispanic occupants at 6.4%. By 2000, the Latino or Hispanic populace showed a slightly greater share than the black population: 12.5% matches 12.1%. By then, the eastern American populace share had actually grown come 3.6%, if the white populace share dropped come 69.1%

Now, 20 years later, the white population share has declined to 57.8%. The Latino or Hispanic and Asian American population shares have risen come 18.7% and practically 6%, respectively. While these groups fluctuated over the previous 40 years, either increase (for Latino or Hispanic and Asian American populations) or bottom (for the white population), the black share that the population remained fairly constant.

The brand-new census data shows declining white populace shares room pervasive across the nation. Over the 2010-to-2020 decade, the white population share decreased in every 50 claims (though no Washington, D.C.) with significant declines in several. In Nevada, the white population share dropped from 65% in 2000 come 54% in 2010, then to 46% in 2020 (download Table C). White populace shares decreased in 381 of the nation’s 384 urban areas and also 2,982 that its 3,140 counties.

Moreover, the 2020 census shows that 6 states and also Washington, D.C. Are minority-white, with both Maryland and also Nevada achieving the status due to the fact that 2010. Also, 27 of the 100 largest metropolitan locations have minority-white populations, including Dallas; Orlando, Fla.; Atlanta; Austin, Texas; brand-new Orleans; and Sacramento, Calif., which got to this condition in 2020.

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Population gains and losses varied throughout states and also regions

Despite the slow national expansion in the 2010s decade, over there was wide variation in gains throughout states for different racial and ethnic groups. As questioned above, 35 states shed white populace over this period. Yet, many states got Latino or Hispanic, Black, and Asian American residents (download Table D).

There are distinctions amongst the optimal population-gaining says for each ethnic group. States that witnessed gains in white residents are nearly exclusively situated in the sun Belt, led by Utah, Colorado, and also Florida. In fact, the 11 states (including Washington, D.C.) with the best numeric white gains room all located in the South and West regions. In contrast, 7 of the eight says with best white population losses are in the Northeast and also Midwest, consisting of the highly urbanized claims of new York, Illinois, and brand-new Jersey. The one sun Belt exemption is California, another urbanized state, which led every others in white populace losses.

Black populace gains additionally favor the sunlight Belt, led by Texas, Georgia, and Florida. This is regular with the recent history of black migration fads toward flourishing southern states, countering the “great migration” of afri Americans the end of the southern in the very first half the the 20th century. Yet number of non-Southern states—including Minnesota, Nevada, and Arizona—have additionally attracted black Americans throughout the previous decade. At the other end of the spectrum are 7 states and Washington, D.C. Which registered accident in black color residents. The largest losses developed in Illinois, California, Michigan, and brand-new York. These are amongst the states that currently serve as origins for the “reverse migration” earlier to the South.

States that gained the many Latino or Hispanic and also Asian American citizens differ rather from the two previous groups. These often tend to be that says historically attracted immigrant members of these populations, consisting of Texas, California, Florida, and new York. Return both groups’ populaces are dispersing across the country, in its entirety gains room still greatly clustered in this states.

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The youth population declined in 27 states and also the nation as a whole

The new 2020 census data enables assessment the the size and also recent alters in the nation’s under-age-18 population (referred to right here as the “youth” population). Particularly noteworthy detect is the overall decrease in this populace over the 2010-to-2020 decade. In a nation that is quickly aging, an absolute decrease in the youth populace represents a demographic challenge for the future.

The 2010-to-2020 lose of end 1 million youths contrasts through gains in that populace during the previous 2 decades. When this is not the very first decade to it is registered a ns in the nation’s youth, it is arising at a time of higher aging that the population. This differs from the instance in the 1960s, when lot of the large baby boomer populace was under age 18, and also comprised 35% that the complete population. This youth re-publishing dipped over time and also has currently reached 22%.

What this way is the youths consist of a demographically smaller share that the populace while the overall populace is aging. Together the large baby boomer populace advances past their major labor force ages, both youths and the labor-force-age populace will only prosper modestly in ~ best.

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The national picture of the youth population loss is evident and even exaggeration in huge parts that the country. In between 2010 and 2020, 27 claims registered absolute decreases in your youth populations. These states are located in all areas of the country, yet especially in the Northeast (download Table E).