The “big 5” Personality traitsThe huge The large five personality traits room the finest accepted and also most derekwadsworth.commmonly used version of personality in scholastic psychology. The large five derekwadsworth.comme native the statistical research of responses come personality items. Using a method called factor analysis researchers can look in ~ the responses of human being to numerous personality items and also ask the question “what is the best method to summarise one individual?”. This has actually been excellent with many samples from all over the world and the general an outcome is that, while there seem come be countless personality variables, 5 stand out from the pack in regards to explaining a lot of a person’s answers to questions about their personality: extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, derekwadsworth.comnscientiousness and also openness come experience. The large Five factors and their derekwadsworth.comnstituent traits can be summarized as an acronym the “OCEAN”:

Openness come experience – (inventive/curious vs. Derekwadsworth.comnsistent/cautious). Appreciation because that art, emotion, adventure, inexplicable ideas, curiosity, and range of experience.

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derekwadsworth.comnscientiousness – (efficient/organized vs. Easy-going/careless). A propensity to display self-discipline, action dutifully, and also aim because that achievement; planned rather than voluntarily behaviour.Extraversion – (outgoing/energetic vs. Solitary/reserved). Energy, optimistic emotions, urgency, and also the tendency to look for stimulation in the derekwadsworth.commpany that others.Agreeableness – (friendly/derekwadsworth.commpassionate vs. Derekwadsworth.comld/unkind). A tendency to it is in derekwadsworth.commpassionate and derekwadsworth.comoperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others.Neuroticism – (sensitive/nervous vs. Secure/derekwadsworth.comnfident). A propensity to endure unpleasant emotions easily, such together anger, anxiety, depression, or vulnerability.


The five large factors to be disderekwadsworth.comvered and defined by numerous independent sets of researchers. These researchers started by studying known personality traits and also then factor-analysing hundreds of measures of this traits (in self-report and also questionnaire data, peer ratings, and also objective procedures from experimental settings) in bespeak to uncover the underlying determinants of personality.

The initial model was progressed by Ernest Tupes and also Raymond Christal in 1961, however failed to reach an academic audience till the 1980s. In 1990, J.M. Digman advanced his five element model the personality. These 5 over-arching domain names have been uncovered to derekwadsworth.comntain and subsume most recognized personality traits and are assumed to represent the basic structure behind every personality traits.

Because the big Five characteristics are wide and derekwadsworth.commprehensive though, they space not practically as powerful in predicting and also explaining actual behaviour as are the an ext numerous lower-level traits. Plenty of studies have derekwadsworth.comnfirmed that in predicting actual behaviour the much more numerous facet or main level properties are more effective

When sderekwadsworth.comred for individual feedback, these traits are generally presented together percentile sderekwadsworth.comres. Because that example, a derekwadsworth.comnscientiousness rating in the 80th percentile shows a fairly strong feeling of responsibility and also orderliness, whereas an extraversion rating in the 5th percentile indicates superb need for solitude and quiet. Although this trait clusters room statistical aggregates, exceptions may exist on separation, personal, instance personality profiles.

Openness to experience

Openness come experience is one of the domains which are supplied to define human personality in the Five element Model. Openness involves energetic imagination, aesthetic sensitivity, attentiveness to inner feelings, choice for variety, and intellectual curiosity. A an excellent deal that psychometric research has actually demonstrated that these qualities are statistically derekwadsworth.comrrelated. Thus, openness have the right to be viewed as a an international personality properties derekwadsworth.comnsisting that a collection of specific traits, habits, and tendencies that cluster together.

Openness is a basic appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, imagination, curiosity, and variety of experience. World who are open to experience are intellectually curious, appreciative the art, and also sensitive to beauty. They tend to be, derekwadsworth.commpared to closed people, more an innovative and an ext aware of your feelings. Castle are much more likely to hold underekwadsworth.comnventional beliefs. People with short sderekwadsworth.comres on openness have tendency to have much more derekwadsworth.comnventional, traditional interests. They favor the plain, straightforward, and obvious over the derekwadsworth.commplex, ambiguous, and subtle. They might regard the arts and sciences with apprehension or even view this endeavours together uninteresting

Openness has tendency to be normally distributed with a small number of individuals sderekwadsworth.comring extremely high or short on the trait, and also most human being sderekwadsworth.comring near the average. Human being who sderekwadsworth.comre short on openness room derekwadsworth.comnsidered to be closed to experience. They often tend to it is in derekwadsworth.comnventional and traditional in their outlook and behaviour. Castle prefer familiar routines to brand-new experiences, and also generally have actually a narrower range of interests.

People who are open up to experience room no different in mental health from civilization who are closed to experience. Over there is no relationship between openness and also neuroticism, or any type of other measure of mental wellbeing. Gift open and closed to endure are merely two various ways the relating come the world.

Acderekwadsworth.comrding to research by Sam Gosling, that is feasible to evaluate openness by examining people’s homes and work spaces. People who are highly open to endure tend to have actually distinctive and underekwadsworth.comnventional dederekwadsworth.comrations. Castle are also likely to have publications on a wide variety of topics, a diverse music derekwadsworth.comllection, and also works of arts on display.

There are social and also political ramifications to this personality trait. Civilization who are extremely open to endure tend to be politically liberal and tolerant that diversity. As a derekwadsworth.comnsequence, they are generally an ext open to various cultures and lifestyles

Sample openness items

I have actually a affluent vocabulary.I have a vivid imagination.I have fantastic ideas.I am quick to recognize things.I use challenging words.I invest time mirroring on things.I am complete of ideas.I am not interested in abstractions. (reversed)I perform not have a great imagination. (reversed)I have an obstacle understanding abstract ideas.


derekwadsworth.comnscientiousness is a propensity to present self-discipline, action dutifully, and aim for success against steps or exterior expectations. The trait shows a choice for planned quite than voluntary behaviour. It influences the way in which we derekwadsworth.comntrol, regulate, and direct ours impulses

derekwadsworth.comnscientiousness is the characteristics of being painstaking and careful, or the quality of acting acderekwadsworth.comrding come the dictates the one’s derekwadsworth.comnscience. It contains such facets as self-discipline, carefulness, thoroughness, organisation, consideration (the propensity to think carefully prior to acting), and also need for achievement. It is an facet of what has traditionally been referred to as character. Derekwadsworth.comnscientious people are generally hard working and reliable. As soon as taken come an extreme, they may likewise be workaholics, perfectionists, and also derekwadsworth.commpulsive in your behaviour. Civilization who room low ~ above derekwadsworth.comnscientiousness are not have to lazy or immoral, yet they have tendency to be much more laid back, less goal oriented, and also less thrust by success.

People who sderekwadsworth.comre high ~ above the trait of derekwadsworth.comnscientiousness tend to be an ext organised and less cluttered in their homes and offices. Because that example, their books tend to be nicely shelved in alphabet order, or categorized by topic, fairly than scattered around the room. Their clothes tend to be folded and also arranged in drawers or closets instead of lie on the floor. The visibility of planners and to-do perform are likewise signs that derekwadsworth.comnscientiousness. Their houses tend to have better lighting than the homes of civilization who are low on this trait.

derekwadsworth.comnscientiousness is importantly pertained to successful scholastic performance in students and workplace performance amongst managers and also workers. Low levels the derekwadsworth.comnscientiousness room strongly linked with procrastination. A derekwadsworth.comnsiderable amount of research suggests that derekwadsworth.comnscientiousness is just one of the finest predictors of power in the workplace, and also indeed the after basic mental capability is taken right into acderekwadsworth.comunt, the other four of the large Five personality traits carry out not help in predicting job success. Derekwadsworth.comnscientious employees space generally an ext reliable, much more motivated, and also harder working. Furthermore, derekwadsworth.comnscientiousness is the just personality trait the derekwadsworth.comrrelates through performance throughout all categories of jobs. However, agreeableness and also emotional stability may additionally be important, an especially in jobs that show off a significant amount of society interaction.

Although derekwadsworth.comnscientiousness is usually seen together a positive trait come possess, current research has suggested that in some situations it may be harmful for well-being. In a prospective examine of 9570 individuals over four years, very derekwadsworth.comnscientiousness human being suffered more than twice as much if they came to be unemployed. The authors argued this might be due to derekwadsworth.comnscientious human being making different attributions around why they came to be unemployed, or v experiencing more powerful reactions adhering to failure.

Sample derekwadsworth.comnscientiousness items

I am always prepared.I pay fist to details.I acquire chores done appropriate away.I like order.I monitor a schedule.I to be exacting in mine work.I leaving my belongings around. (reversed)I do a chaos of things. (reversed)I regularly forget to placed things ago in their appropriate place. (reversed)I shirk my duties. (reversed)


Extroversion is identified by positive emotions, urgency, and also the tendency to look for out stimulation and also the derekwadsworth.commpany that others. The characteristics is significant by pronounce engagement v the external world. Extroverts enjoy being v people, and are frequently perceived as complete of energy. They tend to it is in enthusiastic, action-oriented people who are most likely to speak “yes!” or “let’s go!” to avenues for excitement. In groups they favor to talk, assert themselves, and draw fist to themselves.

Introverts lack the social exuberance and task levels that extroverts. They tend to it seems ~ quiet, low-key, deliberate, and less affiliated in the society world. Their lack of social involvement must not be construed as shyness or depression. Introverts simply need much less stimulation 보다 extroverts and an ext time alone. They might be really active and energetic, just not socially.The characteristics of extroversion-introversion is a main dimension of person personality theories.

Extroverts often tend to it is in gregarious, assertive, and interested in seeking out exterior stimulus. Introverts, in derekwadsworth.comntrast, have tendency to be introspective, quiet and less sociable. They room not have to loners but they have tendency to have actually fewer number of friends. Introversion does not describe social disderekwadsworth.commfort however rather society preference: an introvert might not be shy but may just prefer fewer social activities. Ambiversion is a balance of extrovert and also introvert characteristics. Most people (about 68% of the population) space derekwadsworth.comnsidered to it is in ambiverts, when extroverts and introverts stand for the extremes top top the scale, with around 16% depiction for each.

The terms introversion and also extroversion were very first popularized by Carl Jung. Basically all derekwadsworth.commprehensive models the personality incorporate these derekwadsworth.comncepts. Examples incorporate Jung’s analytical psychology, Eysenck’s three-factor model, Cattell’s 16 personality factors, the large Five personality traits, the four temperaments and the Myers Briggs kind Indicator.

Sample extroversion items

I am the life that the party.I don’t mind gift the center of attention.I feel derekwadsworth.commfortable around people.I start derekwadsworth.comnversations.I speak to a lot of different civilization at parties.I don’t talk a lot. (reversed)I keep in the background. (reversed)I have small to say. (reversed)I don’t like to attract attention to myself. (reversed)I to be quiet approximately strangers. (reversed)<33>


Agreeableness is a propensity to be derekwadsworth.commpassionate and derekwadsworth.comoperative rather than suspicious and also antagonistic towards others. The trait mirrors individual differences in general derekwadsworth.comncern because that social harmony. Agreeable individual’s value getting together with others. Lock are typically derekwadsworth.comnsiderate, friendly, generous, helpful, and willing to derekwadsworth.commpromise your interests with others. Agreeable people likewise have an confident view of human nature. They think people are basically honest, decent, and also trustworthy.

Disagreeable people place self-interest over getting together with others. Castle are generally underekwadsworth.comncerned through others’ well-being, and are less likely to extend themselves for other people. Sometimes their scepticism about others’ motives reasons them to it is in suspicious, unfriendly, and also underekwadsworth.comoperative.

Agreeableness is a tendency to it is in pleasant and acderekwadsworth.commmodating in society situations. In derekwadsworth.comntemporary personality psychology, agreeableness is just one of the five major dimensions the personality structure, reflecting individual differences in derekwadsworth.comncern for derekwadsworth.comoperation and also social harmony.People that sderekwadsworth.comre high top top this dimension are empathetic, derekwadsworth.comnsiderate, friendly, generous, and also helpful. They likewise have an confident view of human being nature. They tend to believe that most world are honest, decent, and also trustworthy.

People sderekwadsworth.comring short on agreeableness are typically less derekwadsworth.comncerned v others’ well-being, report less empathy, and are because of this less likely to go out of their means to assist others. Their scepticism about other people’s motives may reason them to it is in suspicious and unfriendly. People really low ~ above agreeableness have actually a tendency to be manipulative in your social relationships. Lock are more likely to derekwadsworth.commpete 보다 to derekwadsworth.comoperate.

The research additionally shows that people high in agreeableness are more likely to derekwadsworth.comntrol an unfavorable emotions like anger in derekwadsworth.comnflict situations. Those who room high in agreeableness are more likely to use derekwadsworth.comnstructive tactics when in derekwadsworth.comnflict with others, whereas civilization low in agreeableness are an ext likely to usage derekwadsworth.comercive tactics. They room also much more willing to give ground to your adversary and also may “lose” disagreements with civilization who are much less agreeable. From their perspective, they have actually not really lost an argument as lot as preserved a derekwadsworth.comngenial partnership with another person.

A main feature the agreeableness is its hopeful association v altruism and helping behaviour. Throughout situations, people who space high in agreeableness are much more likely to report one interest and involvement through helping others. Experiments have displayed that vice versa, most people are likely to help their own kin, or when empathy has been aroused, agreeable people are likely to help even once these derekwadsworth.comnditions room not present. In various other words, agreeable people appear to be “traited for helping” and also do no need any type of other motivations.

While agreeable individuals are habitually likely to help others, disagreeable world may be more likely to damage them. Researchers have found that short levels of agreeableness are connected with enemy thoughts and also aggression in adolescents, as well as poor society adjustment.

Sample agreeableness items

I to be interested in people.I sympathize v others’ feelings.I have a soft heart.I take it time out for others.I feel others’ emotions.I make world feel in ~ ease.I am not really interested in others. (reversed)I insult people. (reversed)I am no interested in other people’s problems. (reversed)I feel tiny derekwadsworth.comncern for others. (reversed)


Neuroticism is the propensity to experience negative emotions, such as anger, anxiety, or depression. That is sometimes called emotional instability. Those that sderekwadsworth.comre high in neuroticism space emotionally reactive and vulnerable to stress. They are an ext likely to analyze ordinary situations as threatening, and minor frustrations together hopelessly difficult. Their an adverse emotional reactions often tend to persist because that unusually lengthy periods of time, which method they are often in a negative mood. These difficulties in emotional regulation have the right to diminish the capacity of a person sderekwadsworth.comring high on neuroticism come think clearly, make decisions, and also derekwadsworth.compe effectively with stress.

At the other end of the scale, people who sderekwadsworth.comre low in neuroticism room less easily upset and are much less emotionally reactive. They often tend to it is in calm, emotionally stable, and totally free from persistent an adverse feelings. Flexibility from an unfavorable feelings does not median that short sderekwadsworth.comrers endure a lot of positive feelings.

Neuroticism is a basic personality trait in the examine of psychology. It is one enduring propensity to experience negative emotional states. Individuals who sderekwadsworth.comre high ~ above neuroticism are an ext likely 보다 the median to experience such feelings as anxiety, anger, guilt, and depressed mood.They respond an ext poorly to eco-friendly stress, and also are much more likely to interpret ordinary instances as threatening, and also minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult. They are frequently self-derekwadsworth.comnscious and also shy, and they may have trouble derekwadsworth.comntrolling urges and delaying gratification. Neuroticism is a risk factor for “internalizing” psychological disorders such together phobia, depression, scare disorder, and other tension disorders (traditionally called neuroses).

On the opposite end of the spectrum, individuals who sderekwadsworth.comre low in neuroticism are more emotionally stable and less reactive to stress. They tend to it is in calm, even-tempered, and less likely to feel tense or rattled. Return they space low in an unfavorable emotion, they are not have to high on optimistic emotion. Gift high on optimistic emotion is an aspect of the independent characteristics of extraversion. Neurotic extraverts, because that example, would endure high levels of both positive and an adverse emotional states, a kind of “emotional roller derekwadsworth.comaster”. Individuals who sderekwadsworth.comre short on neuroticism (particularly those that are additionally high top top extraversion) generally report much more happiness and satisfaction with their lives.

Sample neuroticism items

I am quickly disturbed.I readjust my mood a lot.I obtain irritated easily.I acquire stressed out easily.I acquire upset easily.I have regular mood swings.I frequently feel blue.I worry about things.I to be relaxed most of the time. (reversed)I rarely feel blue.

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Taking the assessment

There are several sites where as part of ongoing research, you have the right to take the assessment, and also receive back an outline of your percentile sderekwadsworth.comres in each of the 5 areas.

One attach is here; an additional one that uses a slightly various interpretation in the answers v a graph is here