Publication: Canadian journal of Physiology and also Pharmacology • 18 April 2012 • https://doi.org/10.1139/y2012-045
Granule procession property and rapid “kiss-and-run” exocytosis add to the various kinetics the catecholamine relax from carotid glomus and also adrenal chromaffin cell at matched quantal size
*

Venlafaxine is recognised together an reliable treatment for depression and is known to inhibit the reuptake the serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA). An additional antidepressant, bupropion, acts to inhibit dopamine (DA) and also NA reuptake and also is commonly co-administered with various other antidepressants to boost the efficacy that the antidepressant effect. The existing study to be designed to inspection the acute result of combine the 2 medicine on extracellular level of 5-HT, DA, and also NA in rat frontal cortex using brain microdialysis, through the drugs being administered by intraperitoneal injection (i.p). Bupropion (10 mg/kg body mass, i.p.) alone had actually no effect on extracellular 5-HT levels, conversely, venlafaxine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) alone considerably elevated extracellular 5-HT end basal values. As expected, bupropion alone elevated extracellular dopamine over basal values at 40 min post-drug administration, and also this impact lasted for a further 2 h. Venlafaxine alone did no statistically elevate extracellular dopamine. The co-administration of venlafaxine v bupropion brought about a dramatic boost in extracellular dopamine, and also this effect was considerably greater than that seen v bupropion alone. In the frontal cortex, NA to be elevated by bupropion alone and venlafaxine alone, family member to the regulate animals. The combination of bupropion and also venlafaxine caused a significant elevation of NA.

You are watching: Combination treatment venlafaxine and bupropion


La venlafaxine est reconnue to water traiter efficacement la dépression et est connue pour inhiber la recapture de la sérotonine (5-HT) et de la noradrénaline (NA). Un autre antidépresseur, le bupropion, agit to water inhiber la recapture de dopamine (DA) et de NA et est souvent administré conjointement à d’autres antidépresseurs pour améliorer l’efficacité de l’effet antidépresseur. L’étude présente a été conçue to water examiner l’effet aigu de combiner les deux médicaments sur les niveaux extracellulaires de 5-HT, de DA et de NA dans le cortex frontal du rat en utilisant une microdialyse cérébrale, les médicaments ayant été administrés par voie intrapéritonéale (i.p.). Le bupropion (10 mg/kg de poids corporel, i.p.) seul n’avait pas d’effet sur les niveaux de 5-HT extracellulaires, alors que la venlafaxine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) seule élevait de manière significative les niveaux de 5-HT extracellulaires au-dessus des valeurs de base. Tel qu’attendu, le bupropion seul élevait les niveaux extracellulaires de dopamine au-dessus des valeurs de base, 40 minutes après son management et cet effet perdurait pendant 2 heures additionnelles. La venlafaxine seule n’élevait pas significativement les niveaux de dopamine extracellulaire. L’administration conjointe de venlafaxine et de bupropion accroissait nettement la dopamine extracellulaire et cet effet était significativement plus necessary que celui du bupropion seul. La NA du cortex frontal était accrue par le bupropion seul et par la venlafaxine seule par rapport aux animaux contrôles. La combinaison de bupropion et de venlafaxine résultait en une élévation marquée de NA.
Ascher J.A., Cole J.O., Colin J.N., Feighner J.P., Ferris R.M., Fibiger H.C., et al. 1995. Bupropion: a evaluation of it’s device of antidepressant activity. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 56(9): 395–401.
Blier P., Ward H.E., Tremblay P., Laberge L., Hébert C., and also Bergeron R. 2009. Combination of antidepressant medicines from therapy initiation for major depressive disorder: a double-blind randomized study. Am. J. Psychiatry, 167(3): 281–288.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Cipriani A., Furukawa T.A., Salanti G., Geddes J.R., Higgins J.P.T., Churchill R., et al. 2009. Compare efficacy and also acceptability the 12 new-generation antidepressants: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis. Lancet, 373(9665): 746–758.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
David D.J.P., Bourin M., Jego G., Przybylski C., Jolliet P., and also Gardier A.M. 2003. Impacts of acute treatment through paroxetine, citalopram and also venlafaxine in vivo ~ above noradrenaline and serotonin outflow: a microdialysis study in Swiss mice. Br. J. Pharmacol. 140(6): 1128–1136.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Dawson L.A., Nguyen H.Q., and Geiger A. 1999. Impacts of velafaxine on extracellular concentration of 5-HT and noradrenaline in the rat frontal cortex: augmentation via 5-HT1A receptor antagonism. Neuropharmacology, 38(8): 1153–1163.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Dong J. And Blier P. 2001. Adjustments of norepinephine and serotonin, but not dopamine, neuron shooting by substained bupropion treatment. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 155(1): 52–57.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Farvolden P., Kennedy S.H., and also Lam R.W. 2003. Recent advancements in the psychobiology and also pharmacotherapy the depression: optimising existing treatments and also novel viewpoints for the future. Expert Opin. Investig. Drugs, 12(1): 65–86.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Gur E., Dremencov E., Lerer B., and also Newman M.E. 1999. Venlafaxine:acute and also chronic impacts on 5-hydroxytryptamine level in rat mind in vivo. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 372(1): 17–24.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Horst W.D. And Preskorn S.H. 1998. Mechanisms of activity and clinical attributes of three atypical antidepressants: venlafaxine, nefazodone, bupropion. J. Affect. Disord. 51(3): 237–254.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Kennedy S.H., McCann S.M., Maellis M., McIntyre R.S., Raskin J., McKay G.B., and Baker G.B. 2002. Combine bupropion SR v venlafaxine, paroxetine, or fluoetine: a preliminary report on pharmacokinetic, therapeutic, and also sexual dysfunction effects. J. Clin. Psychol. 63: 181–186.
Lam R.W., Wan D.D., Cohen N.L., and Kennedy S.H. 2002. Combine antidepressants for treatment-resistant depression: a review. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 63(8): 685–693.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Li S.X., Perry K.W., and also Wong D.T. 2002. Affect of fluoxetine ~ above the capability of bupropion to modulate extracellular dopamine and also norepinephrine concentration in 3 mesocorticolimbic locations of rats. Neuropharmacology, 42(2): 181–190.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Lieberman J.A. 2003. History of the use of antidepressants in major care. Primary care Companion, 5(Suppl. 7): 6–10.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Mitchell P.J. And Fletcher A. 1993. Venlafaxine exhibits preclinical antidepressant task in the resident-intruder social communication paradigm. Neuropharmacology, 32(10): 1001–1009.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Montgomery S.A. 1995. Quick onset of action of venlafaxine. Int. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 10(Suppl. 2): 21–27.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Nemeroff C.B. 1997. Augmentation methods in patients v refractory depression. Depress. Anxiety, 4(4): 169–181.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Nierenberg A.A., Gray S.M., and Grandin L.L. 2001. Atmosphere disorders and suicide. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 62(Suppl. 25): 27–30.
Nomikos G.G., Damsma G., Wenkstern D., and Fibiger H.C. 1989. Acute impacts of bupropion on extracellular dopamine concentration in rat striatum and nucleus accumbens learned by in vivo microdialysis. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2(4): 273–279.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Paxinos, G., and also Watson, C. 1986. The rat mind in stereotaxic coordinates. Scholastic Press, mountain Diego, Calif.
Perlis R.H., Fava M., Nierenberg A.A., Pollack M.H., Falk W.E., Kienke A.S., and also Rosenbaum J.F. 2002. Tactics for the treatment of SSRI-associated sex-related dysfunction: a inspection of an academic psychopharmacology practice. Harv. Rev. Psychiatry, 10(2): 109–114.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Piacentini M.F., Clinckers R., Meeusen R., Sarre S., Ebinger G., and also Michotte Y. 2003. Effect of bupropion top top hippocampal neurotransmitters and also on peripheral hormonal concentrations in the rat. J. Appl. Physiol. 95(2): 652–656.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Prica C., Hascoet M., and also Bourin M. 2008. Is co-administration that bupropion with SSRIs and also SNRIs in forced swimming test in mice, predictive the efficacy in resistant depression? Behav. Mind Res. 194(1): 92–99.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Rojo J.E., Ros S., Agüera L., de la Gándara J., and also de Pedro J.M. 2005. Merged antidepressants: clinical experience. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. Suppl. 112(428): 25–31, 36.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Rudolph R., Entsuah R., and also Derivan A. 1991. Beforehand clinical solution in depression to venlafaxine hydrochloride. Biol. Psychiatry, 29: 630S.
Rush A.J., Warden D., Wisniewski S.R., Fava M., Trivedi M.H., Gaynes B.N., and also Nierenberg A.A. 2009. STAR*D: revising standard wisdom. CNS Drugs, 23(8): 627–647.
Shelton R.C. And Papakostas G.I. 2008. Augmentation that antidepressants v atypical antipsychotics because that treatment-resistant significant depressive disorder. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 117(4): 253–259.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Sidhpura N., Redfern P., Rowley H., cure D., and Wonnacott S. 2007. Comparison of the effects of bupropion and nicotine on locomotor activation and also dopamine release in vivo. Biochem. Pharmacol. 74(8): 1292–1298.
Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Stahl S.M., Pradko J.F., Haight B.R., Modell J.G., Rockett C.B., and also Learned-Coughlin S. 2004. A review of the pharmacology the bupropion, a double norepinephrine and also dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Prim. Treatment Companion J. Clin. Psychiatry, 6(4): 159–166.

See more: The Assassination Of Julius Caesar Primary Sources, The Assassination Of Julius Caesar


Crossref
PubMed
Google Scholar
Zisook S., sirloin J., Haight B.R., Clines D.C., and also Rockett C.B. 2006. Use of bupropion in combination with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Biol. Psychiatry, 59(3): 203–210.