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You are watching: Body fluids supply the tissues continuously with energy, oxygen, and nutrients, including water.

InformedHealth.org . Cologne, Germany: Institute for Quality and also Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG); 2006-.


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Blood is a vitally necessary fluid for the body. It is thicker than water, and also feels a little sticky. The temperature of blood in the body is 38°C (100.4°F), which is around one degree greater than body temperature. How a lot blood you have counts mostly on your dimension and also weight. A man that weighs around 70 kg (about 154 pounds) has around 5 to 6 liters of blood in his body. Blood has actually 3 important functions:


Transportation

The blood transporting activities oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body, wbelow it is required for metabolism. The carbon dioxide developed throughout metabolism is carried back to the lungs by the blood, wright here it is then exhaled (breathed out). Blood additionally provides the cells via nutrients, transports hormones and clears waste commodities, which organs such as the liver, the kidneys or the intestine then remove.


Regulation

The blood helps to store specific points in the body in balance. For circumstances, it makes certain that the ideal body temperature is maintained. This is done both via the liquid part of the blood (plasma), which have the right to absorb or offer off heat, as well as through the speed at which the blood is flowing: When the blood vessels expand also, the blood flows even more progressively and this causes warmth to be shed. When the temperature exterior the body is low, the blood vessels can contract to reduce the amount of warmth shed. Even the pH value of the blood is retained at a level appropriate for the body. The pH worth tells us how acidic or alkaline a liquid is. A constant pH worth is exceptionally important for things in the body to feature correctly.


Protection

This entails solid components of the blood such as blood platelets and assorted substances that are liquified in the blood plasma. If a blood vessel is damaged, these parts of the blood stick together (clot) extremely conveniently and also make sure that a scrape, for circumstances, stops bleeding. This avoids large quantities of blood loss. White blood cells and also certain chemical messengers also play an important duty in the immune mechanism.


The individual components of blood

Blood is comprised of about 55% blood plasma and also about 45% various types of blood cells. Blood plasma is a light yellow, slightly cloudy liquid. Over 90% of blood plasma is water, while much less than 10% is composed of dissolved substances, largely proteins. Blood plasma additionally has electrolytes, vitamins and nutrients such as glucose and amino acids. Over 99% of the solid pshort articles in blood are cells well-known as red blood cells (erythrocytes) due to their red color. The rest are pale or colorless white blood cells (leukocytes) and platelets (thrombocytes).

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Blood is consisted of of plasma and blood cells


Red blood cells look favor discs that are thinner in the middle. They deserve to easily change form to “squeeze through” narrowhead blood vessels. Unchoose many type of other cells, red blood cells have no nucleus ("information center"). All red blood cells contain a red pigment well-known as hemoglobin. Oxygen binds to hemoglobin, and is transported roughly the body in that method. In tiny blood vessels in the lung, the red blood cells pick up oxygen from inhaled (breathed in) air and bring it via the bloodstream to all components of the body. When they reach their goal, they release it aacquire. The cells need oxygen for metabolism, which creates carbon dioxide as a waste product. The carbon dioxide is soaked up from the cells by the blood plasma (some of it binds to hemoglobin too) and is transported earlier to the lungs in the bloodstream. Tbelow it leaves the body as soon as we breathe out.

Red blood cells have the right to also pick up or release hydrogen and nitrogen. By picking up or releasing hydrogen they help to save the pH of the blood stable; as soon as they release nitrogen the blood vessels expand also, and also blood press falls. Red blood cells live for around 120 days. When they"re too old or damaged, they"re broken dvery own in the bone marrowhead, spleen or liver.

White blood cells (leukocytes) have a cell nucleus and also don"t contain hemoglobin. Tright here are various types of white blood cells. They are classified according to just how their nucleus is shaped and what the inside of the cell looks like under a microscope. Granulocytes have actually small granules inside them. Monocytes and also lymphocytes likewise contain granules, but their granules are exceptionally little and can"t be seen under a microscope. There are many kind of even more red blood cells than white blood cells in the blood. But white blood cells deserve to leave the bloodstream and also relocate right into tissues in the body.

White blood cells play a vital duty in the immune system. Here the different blood cells have actually different functions: Some fight intruders such as bacteria, virprovides, parasites or fungi themselves and also render them harmmuch less. Others make antibodies, which specifically target foreign objects or germs prefer viruses. Leukocytes also play a part in allergic reactions: For circumstances, they are the reason why people with a dust mite allergy get a runny nose once they come into call through dust. Certain lymphocytes have the right to likewise kill cancerous cells that have arisen in other places in the body. Most white blood cells have a lifeexpectancy of just a few hrs to several days. Some lymphocytes have the right to stay in the body for many kind of years, though.

Blood platelets (thrombocytes) additionally look favor bit discs, as execute red blood cells, and also they likewise have actually no cell nucleus. But they are much smaller sized than red blood cells. They play an essential function in blood clotting: If a blood vessel is damaged – for instance, if you accidentally reduced yourself via a knife – the healing procedure begins with blood plateallows gathering and also clumping together on the inside of the damaged wall of the blood vessel. This easily reasons a plug to create and close the wound temporarily. At the same time, solid protein threads are made and they host the clump in area, attached to the wound. Thrombocytes generally live only 5 to 9 days. Old thrombocytes are largely broken down in the spleen.


Production of blood cells

All solid parts of the blood come from widespread parent cells known as stem cells. In adults, blood cells are mainly produced in the bone marrowhead. The various blood cells build in several stperiods from stem cells to blood cells or blood platelets. White blood cells such as lymphocytes don"t just mature in the bone marrowhead, but also in the lymph nodes. When the cells are all set, they are released into the bloodstream. In enhancement to these mature cells, the blood still consists of a small number of precursor cells.

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Certain chemical messengers manage the production of blood cells. For instance, the hormone erythropoietin, which is produced in the kidneys, promotes the manufacturing of red blood cells. And cytokines stimulate the production of white blood cells.