Learning Objectives

Explain work-related as a deliver of energy and net occupational as the work done through the network force.Explain and apply the work-energy theorem.

You are watching: Assume that the energy lost was entirely due to friction

Work transfers Energy

What happens to the job-related done on a system? energy is transferred right into the system, however in what form? does it continue to be in the system or relocate on? The answers rely on the situation. Because that example, if the lawn mower in (Figure)(a) is pushed simply hard sufficient to keep it going in ~ a continuous speed, then power put into the mower by the human is gotten rid of continuously through friction, and eventually pipeline the mechanism in the kind of heat transfer. In contrast, job-related done ~ above the briefcase by the human being carrying it increase stairs in (Figure)(d) is save on computer in the briefcase-Earth system and also can be recovered at any time, as displayed in (Figure)(e). In fact, the building of the pyramids in ancient Egypt is an instance of storing power in a device by doing occupational on the system. Several of the power imparted come the rock blocks in lifting castle during building and construction of the pyramids stays in the stone-Earth system and also has the potential to perform work.

In this section we start the examine of various varieties of work and forms the energy. Us will uncover that some varieties of job-related leave the power of a mechanism constant, because that example, vice versa, others readjust the device in part way, such together making that move. Us will also develop definitions of important forms of energy, such together the power of motion.

Net Work and also the Work-Energy Theorem

We understand from the study of Newton’s laws in Dynamics: Force and Newton’s laws of movement that network force reasons acceleration. Us will watch in this section that job-related done by the net pressure gives a system energy of motion, and also in the process we will likewise find one expression because that the power of motion.

Let us begin by considering the total, or net, occupational done on a system. Net work is defined to be the sum of work done through all external forces—that is, net job-related is the work-related done through the net outside force


and also the horizontal friction force
. Thus, as expected, the net pressure is parallel to the displacement, so the
and also
, and also the net work is provided by


The result of the net pressure

is to accelerate the package native
to . The kinetic power of the package increases, indicating that the net work done ~ above the device is positive. (See (Figure).) By making use of Newton’s 2nd law, and also doing part algebra, we can reach an exciting conclusion. Substituting
indigenous Newton’s 2nd law gives


To get a relationship in between net work and the speed provided to a device by the net force acting top top it, us take

and use the equation learned in movement Equations for consistent Acceleration in One measurement for the change in rate over a distance
if the acceleration has actually the continuous value ; namely,
(note that shows up in the expression because that the net work). Addressing for acceleration provides
. Once is substituted into the coming before expression because that , us obtain

This expression is referred to as the work-energy theorem, and also it actually uses in general (even for pressures that vary in direction and also magnitude), although us have acquired it for the special situation of a continuous force parallel to the displacement. The theorem suggests that the net work-related on a system equals the adjust in the amount . This quantity is our very first example the a type of energy.

The amount in the work-energy organize is defined to be the translational kinetic energy (KE) of a mass moving at a speed . (Translational kinetic energy is unique from rotational kinetic energy, which is thought about later.) In equation form, the translational kinetic energy,

is the energy associated with translational motion. Kinetic power is a kind of energy connected with the movement of a particle, single body, or device of objects relocating together.

We are conscious that it takes energy to gain an object, prefer a automobile or the parcel in (Figure), approximately speed, however it may be a little bit surprising that kinetic power is proportional to speed squared. This proportionality means, for example, the a auto traveling at 100 km/h has four times the kinetic energy it has at 50 km/h, helping to define why high-speed collisions are so devastating. We will now consider a series of examples to illustrate various elements of work and energy.

Suppose a 30.0-kg package on the roller belt conveyor device in (Figure) is moving at 0.500 m/s. What is the kinetic energy?


Because the mass and speed are given, the kinetic energy can it is in calculated from its meaning as offered in the equation .


The kinetic energy is given by


Note that the unit the kinetic power is the joule, the very same as the unit the work, as pointed out when job-related was very first defined. That is likewise interesting that, although this is a reasonably massive package, that is kinetic energy is not large at this relatively low speed. This truth is consistent with the observation that human being can relocate packages choose this there is no exhausting themselves.

Suppose that you push on the 30.0-kg package in (Figure) v a constant force that 120 N through a street of 0.800 m, and also that the the opposite friction force averages 5.00 N.

(a) calculate the net work done ~ above the package. (b) settle the same difficulty as in component (a), this time by recognize the work-related done by each pressure that contributes come the net force.

Strategy and also Concept because that (a)

This is a motion in one measurement problem, because the downward pressure (from the weight of the package) and the normal pressure have same magnitude and opposite direction, so the they cancel in calculating the network force, if the used force, friction, and also the displacement space all horizontal. (See (Figure).) as expected, the net occupational is the net force times distance.

Solution for (a)

The net force is the push force minus friction, or

. Thus the net occupational is

Discussion for (a)

This value is the net occupational done top top the package. The human actually does more work than this, due to the fact that friction opposes the motion. Friction does negative work and removes few of the power the person expends and also converts it to thermal energy. The network work equals the sum of the work done by every individual force.

Strategy and Concept because that (b)

The forces acting ~ above the package room gravity, the normal force, the pressure of friction, and also the applied force. The common force and force the gravity are each perpendicular come the displacement, and therefore do no work.

Solution for (b)

The applied force walk work.

The friction force and displacement space in opposite directions, so that , and also the occupational done by friction is

So the quantities of work done by gravity, by the common force, by the used force, and also by friction are, respectively,

Discussion for (b)

The calculated full work

as the sum of the occupational by each pressure agrees, together expected, v the occupational excellent by the network force. The work done by a collection of pressures acting on an item can it is in calculated by either approach.

Find the speed of the package in (Figure) in ~ the end of the push, using work and also energy concepts.


Here the work-energy theorem deserve to be used, because we have actually just calculate the network work, , and the early stage kinetic energy,

. These calculations permit us to find the last kinetic energy, , and also thus the final speed .


The work-energy to organize in equation type is

Solving because that gives


Solving for the last speed as requested and entering known values gives


Using work and energy, we not just arrive at an answer, we view that the last kinetic energy is the amount of the early stage kinetic energy and the net occupational done on the package. This means that the work certainly adds come the power of the package.

How much does the package in (Figure) shore after the push, presume friction remains constant? use work and also energy considerations.


We know that once the person stops pushing, friction will carry the package to rest. In regards to energy, friction does an adverse work till it has removed every one of the package’s kinetic energy. The work-related done through friction is the force of friction times the street traveled time the cosine the the angle in between the friction force and also displacement; hence, this provides us a way of recognize the street traveled after ~ the human being stops pushing.


The typical force and force of heaviness cancel in calculating the network force. The horizontal friction pressure is then the network force, and also it plot opposite come the displacement, therefore . To reduce the kinetic power of the package to zero, the occupational

through friction must be minus the kinetic energy that the package began with to add what the package gathered due to the pushing. Thus
. Furthermore,
, whereby
is the street it takes come stop. Thus,


This is a reasonable distance for a package to coast on a reasonably friction-free conveyor system. Keep in mind that the occupational done by friction is negative (the pressure is in opposing direction of motion), so it clears the kinetic energy.

Some the the examples in this section deserve to be resolved without considering energy, but at the cost of lacking out on obtaining insights around what work and also energy are doing in this situation. Top top the whole, services involving power are generally shorter and simpler than those utilizing kinematics and also dynamics alone.

Section Summary

The net occupational is the job-related done through the net force acting on one object.Work done on an object transfers power to the object.The translational kinetic energy of an object of mass relocating at speed is .The work-energy theorem says that the net job-related top top a system changes its kinetic energy,

The human in (Figure) does work-related on the lawn mower. Under what conditions would the mower get energy? Under what problems would it shed energy?

Work done on a device puts energy into it. Occupational done by a system clears energy indigenous it. Give an instance for every statement.

Compare the kinetic energy of a 20,000-kg truck relocating at 110 km/h v that of an 80.0-kg astronaut in orbit relocating at 27,500 km/h.

(a) How rapid must a 3000-kg elephant move to have actually the exact same kinetic power as a 65.0-kg sprinter running at 10.0 m/s? (b) comment on how the bigger energies needed for the activity of larger animals would relate come metabolic rates.

Confirm the value offered for the kinetic energy of an aircraft carrier in (Figure). Friend will should look up the an interpretation of a nautical mile (1 node = 1 nautical mile/h).

(a) calculate the pressure needed to bring a 950-kg auto to remainder from a speed of 90.0 km/h in a distance of 120 m (a fairly typical distance for a non-panic stop). (b) Suppose instead the auto hits a concrete abutment at complete speed and also is lugged to a prevent in 2.00 m. Calculation the pressure exerted ~ above the car and also compare it with the force uncovered in component (a).

A car’s bumper is draft to resist a 4.0-km/h (1.1-m/s) collision through an immovable object without damages to the human body of the car. The bumper cushions the shock by absorbing the force over a distance. Calculation the magnitude of the average pressure on a bumper the collapses 0.200 m when bringing a 900-kg car to remainder from one initial rate of 1.1 m/s.

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Boxing gloves space padded to lessen the force of a blow. (a) calculate the force exerted by a boxing gloves on one opponent’s face, if the glove and face compress 7.50 cm during a punch in i m sorry the 7.00-kg arm and glove are carried to rest from an initial rate of 10.0 m/s. (b) calculate the pressure exerted by an identical blow in the days once no gloves were used and the knuckles and also face would compress only 2.00 cm. (c) talk about the magnitude of the force with glove on. Does the seem high enough to cause damage even though it is lower than the force with no glove?

Using energy considerations, calculate the average force a 60.0-kg sprinter exerts backward on the monitor to advice from 2.00 come 8.00 m/s in a distance of 25.0 m, if he encounters a headwind the exerts an average pressure of 30.0 N versus him.


net workwork excellent by the net force, or vector amount of all the forces, acting on an objectwork-energy theoremthe result, based upon Newton’s laws, the the net work done on an object is equal to its readjust in kinetic energykinetic energythe energy an object has by factor of that is motion, equal to because that the translational (i.e., non-rotational) movement of an object of massive relocating at speed