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1,4-Dioxane (C4H8O2, CAS No. 123-91-1) additionally can be established as dioxane, dioxan, p-dioxane, diethylene dioxide, diethylene oxide, diethylene ether, or glycol ethylene ether.

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A colorless, flammable liquid through a faint, pleasant odor, the fabricated industrial chemical is used as a solvent because that extracting animal and also vegetable oils and in the formulation of inks, coatings, and adhesives. In the laboratory, 1,4-dioxane is helpful as a cryoscopic solvent because that molecular massive determinations and as a stable reaction medium for diverse reactions. 1,4-Dioxane is used generally as a solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquers, cosmetics, deodorants, cleaning and also detergent preparations, and also in scintillating fluids. Literary works searches additionally indicated the potential for use as a solvent in the processing of crude oil petroleum, petroleum refining, petrochemicals, pulp and paper, explosives, advertisement printing, electroplating/polishing, pesticide and farming manufacture, dyes, fiber manufacture, pharmaceuticals, adhesives, semiconductors, digital components, photographic equipment, magnetic recording media, polymers, plastics, rubber manufacture, and organic and also inorganic chemistry manufacture. 1,4-Dioxane often has been used with chlorinated solvents, specifically 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), as a stabilizer and corrosion inhibitor.

When 1,4-dioxane is supplied as a solvent stabilizer, the solvent itself is regulated together hazardous waste. When used as one additive, 1,4-dioxane is not provided for that is solvent properties and also does not satisfy the regulatory definition of solvent. 1,4-Dioxane usually is detailed with a group of pollutants in state and federal guidance for air contamination control and release reporting and also in water pollutant control and also National Pollutant Discharge Elimination mechanism (NPDES) permitting.

1,4-Dioxane is very flammable and also potentially explosive if no stored properly. The chemical is a cyclic ether the is extremely miscible in water and also migrates swiftly in soil. 1,4-Dioxane contamination often can be uncovered in association with releases that chlorinated solvents, an especially TCA. At some solvent relax sites, 1,4-dioxane has actually been discovered to migrate considerably farther in groundwater 보다 solvents, such as TCA or its breakdown products (e.g., 1,1-dichloroethane), because of the compound"s finish miscibility and also the lack of problems that promote its biodegradation (MADEP 2015). At various other sites, however, the it was observed 1,4-dioxane feather were shorter than co-occurring chlorinated solvent plumes (Adamson et al. 2014).

EPA has detailed the compound together a probable human carcinogen based on the outcomes of animal studies, but little information is available on the long-term effects of 1,4-dioxane on human being health.

When in water the link does no respond come air stripping or granular caused carbon treatment. Although 1,4-dioxane has been taken into consideration resistant come naturally arising biodegradation processes, there is evidence that intrinsic biodegradation have the right to take place at 1,4-dioxane website under suitable conditions (Adamson et al. 2015). Further conversation of intrinsic 1,4-dioxane biodegradation have the right to be discovered in therapy Technologies. Chiang et al. (2016) reports that 1,4-dioxane is not taken into consideration susceptible to chemistry reduction (e.g., zero-valent iron), which also precludes anaerobic biodegradation, nor is oxidation through sodium permanganate an efficient treatment; however,1,4-dioxane in groundwater deserve to be oxidized by caused sodium persulfate, ozone and peroxide, and modified Fenton"s reagent. 1,4-Dioxane contaminated groundwater deserve to be cure ex situ making use of modified Fenton"s reagent, ultraviolet/peroxide, ozone/peroxide, or sodium persulfate (Mohr et al. 2010 and DiGuiseppi et al. 2016). Phytoremediation mirrors promise for 1,4-dioxane removal at depths available to plant roots (DiGuiseppi et al. 2016 and Zhang et al. 2017).

For currently available test methods for 1,4-dioxane see website Characterization and Analytical Methods.


Adapted from:

Adamson, D. Et al. 2015. Evidence of 1,4-dioxane attenuation at groundwater sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents and also 1,4-dioxane. Environmental Science & modern technology 49(11):6510-6518.

Adamson, D.T. Et al. 2014. A multi-site inspection to identify the range of the 1,4-dioxane trouble at contaminated groundwater sites. Environmental Science & an innovation Letters 1(5):254-258.

Chiang, S.-Y.D. Et al. 2016. Useful perspectives of 1,4-dioxane investigation and also remediation. Remediation journal 27(1):7-27.

DiGuiseppi, W. Et al. 2016. 1,4-Dioxane treatment technologies. Remediation newspaper 27(1):71-92.

MADEP. 2015. fact Sheet: indict on Sampling and evaluation for 1,4-Dioxane at disposal Sites regulated under the Massachusetts Contingency Plan. Massachusetts department of ecological Protection.

Mohr, T. Et al. 2010. Ecological Investigation and also Remediation: 1,4-Dioxane and also Other Solvent Stabilizers. CRC Press.

Zhang, S. Et al. 2017. Developments in bioremediation the 1,4-dioxane-contaminated waters. Journal of eco-friendly Management 204(2):765-774.


1,4-Dioxane and also Other Solvent Stabilizers: White document Mohr, T.K.G. Santa Clara valley Water District, san Jose, CA. 55 pp, 2001.

This report summarizes information derived on solvent stabilizers from considerable literature review, and presents the nature and also use the solvent stabilizers, just how they law in the subsurface, a description of laboratory analytical techniques, a review of toxicological details for solvent stabilizer compounds, and a survey of the effectiveness and costs of obtainable treatment technologies.

1,4-Dioxane White PaperWater Resources research study Foundation, 6 pp, 2014

1,4-Dioxane industrial uses, health effects, occurrence, and also treatment room briefly discussed.

Environmental Investigation and Remediation: 1,4-Dioxane and also Other Solvent StabilizersMohr, T., J. Stickney, and also W. DiGuiseppi.CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. ISBN: 9781566706629, 550 pp, 2010

This book examines the uses, industrial history, environmental fate, activities analysis, toxicology, hazard assessment, and also treatment that 1,4-dioxane in considerable detail. It also describes the controversy over interpretation of 1,4-dioxane"s toxicology and associated risk, as well as the matching disparity in state regulation of 1,4-dioxane. Fill with situation studies, equations, tables, figures, and citations, the publication describes passive and active remediation strategies and also treatment technologies for 1,4-dioxane in groundwater.

Groundwater info Sheet: 1,4 DioxaneCalifornia State Water Resources manage Board, 6 pp, 2017

This short groundwater information sheet provides basic information (fate and transport, health and wellness effects, testing and remediation methods) concerned groundwater sources provided for public drinking water, not water served at the tap, and identifies where high level of the compound are uncovered in California.

Technical truth Sheet: 1,4 Dioxane U.S. EPA, Federal framework Restoration and Reuse Office.EPA 505-F-17-011, 9 pp, 2017

This reality sheet offers a brief review of the emerging contaminant 1,4-dioxane, consisting of physical and chemical properties; environmental and also health impacts; present federal and state guidelines; detection and treatment methods; and additional sources of information.

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Technical resources for Addressing environmental Releases the 1,4 Dioxane Interstate technology and regulatory Council (ITRC), 2020

The Interstate technology and regulatory Council (ITRC) has emerged a collection of reality sheets to summary the latest science and emerging technologies for 1,4-Dioxane. The truth sheets room tailored to the needs of state regulatory regime personnel who are tasked through making informed and also timely decisions about 1,4-Dioxane sites. The contents is additionally useful to consultants and parties responsible because that the relax of these contaminants, and public and also tribal stakeholders.

Toxicological Profile for 1,4-Dioxane Agency for toxicity Substances and disease Registry (ATSDR), 295 pp, 2012

In addition to the toxicologic properties of 1,4-dioxane, the profile has chapters top top chemical and also physical information; production, import, use, and also disposal; potential for person exposure (i.e., occurrence); and also analytical methods.