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UNITED STATE EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (derekwadsworth.com)




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1,4-Dioxane (C4H8O2, CAS No. 123-91-1) additionally have the right to be established as dioxane, dioxan, p-dioxane, diethylene dioxide, diethylene oxide, diethylene ether, or glycol ethylene ether.

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A colorless, flammable liquid via a faint, pleasant odor, the synthetic commercial chemical is provided as a solvent for extracting animal and vegetable oils and in the formulation of inks, coatings, and adhesives. In the laboratory, 1,4-dioxane is beneficial as a cryoscopic solvent for molecular mass determicountries and also as a secure reactivity tool for varied reactions. 1,4-Dioxane is provided primarily as a solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquers, cosmetics, deodorants, cleaning and also detergent preparations, and in scintillating fluids. Literature searcs additionally suggested the potential for usage as a solvent in the processing of crude petroleum, petroleum refining, petrochemicals, pulp and paper, explosives, commercial printing, electroplating/polishing, pesticide and farming manufacture, dyes, fiber manufacture, pharmaceuticals, adhesives, semiconductors, digital components, photographic devices, magnetic recording media, polymers, plastics, rubber manufacture, and also organic and also not natural chemical manufacture. 1,4-Dioxane often has actually been offered through chlorinated solvents, specifically 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), as a stabilizer and corrosion inhibitor.

When 1,4-dioxane is supplied as a solvent stabilizer, the solvent itself is regulated as hazardous waste. When used as an additive, 1,4-dioxane is not provided for its solvent properties and does not accomplish the regulatory interpretation of solvent. 1,4-Dioxane mostly is provided with a team of pollutants in state and also federal guidance for air air pollution control and release reporting and also in water pollutant regulate and also National Pollutant Discharge Elimicountry System (NPDES) permitting.

1,4-Dioxane is very flammable and possibly explosive if not stored correctly. The chemical is a cyclic ether that is highly miscible in water and also migrates swiftly in soil. 1,4-Dioxane contamination frequently can be uncovered in association via releases of chlorinated solvents, specifically TCA. At some solvent release sites, 1,4-dioxane has been uncovered to migrate significantly farther in groundwater than solvents, such as TCA or its breakdown commodities (e.g., 1,1-dichloroethane), as a result of the compound"s complete miscibility and the absence of conditions that promote its biodestruction (MADEP 2015). At other sites, however, the observed 1,4-dioxane plumes were shorter than co-emerging chlorinated solvent plumes (Adamchild et al. 2014).

EPA has provided the compound as a probable human carcinogen based on the results of animal research studies, but bit indevelopment is obtainable on the permanent effects of 1,4-dioxane on human wellness.

When in water the compound does not respond to air stripping or granular set off carbon treatment. Although 1,4-dioxane has been taken into consideration resistant to naturally emerging biodestruction processes, tbelow is proof that intrinsic biodeterioration deserve to take location at 1,4-dioxane sites under correct conditions (Adamboy et al. 2015). More discussion of intrinsic 1,4-dioxane biodeterioration have the right to be discovered in Treatment Technologies. Chiang et al. (2016) reports that 1,4-dioxane is not taken into consideration at risk to chemical reduction (e.g., zero-valent iron), which also precludes anaerobic biodegradation, nor is oxidation with sodium permanganate an effective treatment; yet,1,4-dioxane in groundwater deserve to be oxidized by caused sodium persulfate, ozone and peroxide, and modified Fenton"s reagent. 1,4-Dioxane contaminated groundwater deserve to be treated ex situ utilizing modified Fenton"s reagent, ultraviolet/peroxide, ozone/peroxide, or sodium persulfate (Mohr et al. 2010 and also DiGuiseppi et al. 2016). Phytoremediation reflects promise for 1,4-dioxane removal at depths accessible to plant roots (DiGuiseppi et al. 2016 and Zhang et al. 2017).

For presently accessible test techniques for 1,4-dioxane watch Site Characterization and Analytical Methods.


Adapted from:

Adamson, D. et al. 2015. Evidence of 1,4-dioxane attenuation at groundwater sites contaminated through chlorinated solvents and 1,4-dioxane. Environmental Science & Technology 49(11):6510-6518.

Adamboy, D.T. et al. 2014. A multi-site survey to determine the scale of the 1,4-dioxane difficulty at contaminated groundwater sites. Environpsychological Science & Technology Letters 1(5):254-258.

Chiang, S.-Y.D. et al. 2016. Practical perspectives of 1,4-dioxane investigation and remediation. Remediation Journal 27(1):7-27.

DiGuiseppi, W. et al. 2016. 1,4-Dioxane therapy modern technologies. Remediation Journal 27(1):71-92.

MADEP. 2015. Fact Sheet: Guidance on Sampling and Analysis for 1,4-Dioxane at Disposal Sites Regulated under the Massachusetts Contingency Plan. Massachusetts Department of Environpsychological Protection.

Mohr, T. et al. 2010. Environpsychological Investigation and also Remediation: 1,4-Dioxane and also Other Solvent Stabilizers. CRC Press.

Zhang, S. et al. 2017. Advances in bioremediation of 1,4-dioxane-contaminated waters. Journal of Environpsychological Management 204(2):765-774.


1,4-Dioxane and also Other Solvent Stabilizers: White Paper Mohr, T.K.G. Santa Clara Valley Water District, San Jose, CA. 55 pp, 2001.

This report summarizes information acquired on solvent stabilizers from a comprehensive literary works evaluation, and also presents the nature and use of solvent stabilizers, just how they behave actually in the subsurchallenge, a summary of laboratory analytical methods, a review of toxicological indevelopment for solvent stabilizer compounds, and also a survey of the efficiency and also expenses of available therapy technologies.

1,4-Dioxane White PaperWater Resources Research Foundation, 6 pp, 2014

1,4-Dioxane industrial provides, wellness effects, incident, and also therapy are briefly disputed.

Environpsychological Investigation and also Remediation: 1,4-Dioxane and Other Solvent StabilizersMohr, T., J. Stickney, and W. DiGuiseppi.CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. ISBN: 9781566706629, 550 pp, 2010

This book examines the uses, industrial history, environmental fate, laboratory analysis, toxicology, danger assessment, and also therapy of 1,4-dioxane in considerable information. It also explains the dispute over interpretation of 1,4-dioxane"s toxicology and also linked risk, as well as the equivalent disparity in state regulation of 1,4-dioxane. Filled through case research studies, equations, tables, figures, and also citations, the book defines passive and also energetic remediation strategies and treatment modern technologies for 1,4-dioxane in groundwater.

Groundwater Information Sheet: 1,4 DioxaneThe golden state State Water Resources Control Board, 6 pp, 2017

This brief groundwater indevelopment sheet offers general indevelopment (fate and deliver, wellness results, trial and error and remediation methods) pertained to groundwater resources offered for public drinking water, not water offered at the tap, and identifies wbelow high levels of the compound are discovered in California.

Technical Fact Sheet: 1,4 Dioxane UNITED STATE EPA, Federal Facilities Reconstruction and also Reusage Office.EPA 505-F-17-011, 9 pp, 2017

This reality sheet offers a brief summary of the emerging contaminant 1,4-dioxane, including physical and chemical properties; ecological and also health and wellness impacts; existing federal and also state guidelines; detection and also therapy methods; and added sources of indevelopment.

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Technical Resources for Addressing Environmental Releases of 1,4 Dioxane Interstate Technology and also Regulatory Council (ITRC), 2020

The Interstate Technology and also Regulatory Council (ITRC) has actually developed a collection of reality sheets to summarize the latest scientific research and arising modern technologies for 1,4-Dioxane. The fact sheets are tailored to the requirements of state regulatory program personnel that are tasked through making increated and also timely decisions regarding 1,4-Dioxane sites. The content is likewise valuable to consultants and also parties responsible for the release of these contaminants, and public and also tribal stakeholders.

Toxicological Profile for 1,4-Dioxane Agency for Toxic Substances and also Disease Regisattempt (ATSDR), 295 pp, 2012

In addition to the toxicologic properties of 1,4-dioxane, the profile consists of chapters on chemical and physical information; manufacturing, import, use, and also disposal; potential for humale exposure (i.e., occurrence); and analytical techniques.